|Monday, June 22|
Transforming cities: citizen participation in urban planning, the case of Vallcarca, in Barcelona
* Laura Benitez, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
Even though there is interest in participatory planning and there have been improvements in that area, there are still few examples of how it applies to real life. Politics often include basic levels of participation, for example, assemblies or surveys, and they use resources from other techniques that involve participants more, which augments the many criticisms of participatory planning, such as inclusivity and true commitment from communities (Geddes, Charalambous, & Papallas, 2019). The purpose of this study is to illustrate through a case analysis of a Barcelona neighborhood Vallcarca, the process of going from a top-down approach to a bottomup in urban planning and all the complexity behind this process. The case study shows the importance of the organization and participation of the citizens throughout the process. It also underlines how important the political will is, to address a situation where citizens and urban development do not agree and where fighting over decisions necessitates finding a solution in which participation has the main role. Through this investigation we aim to better understand how citizen participation is established in a space that is about to be transformed, the relationship that people have with these environments, and how they get affected by changes on the public space, but most important how they react to it and participate. Multiple methods comprising 12 semi-structured in-depth interviews to key stakeholders, systematic observations of public spaces, and participant observations of participatory processes complemented by the analysis of second-hand data have been applied to find comprehensive information about the participatory process. The project is currently on the final stage of data collection, we are waiting to have a final group interview with members of the community that are actively participating on the process. Most of the done interviews are already transcript and with a first analysis done. Data was analyzed following qualitative thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) Preliminary results show that neighbours result seriously affected by the long period of transformation of the neighbourhood, but this same issue motivated then to keep claiming their right to rebuild the neighborhood they want and to recover most of the lost identity of it. Today the community is well organized and little by little winning spaces that they can re-appropriate and they can manage on their own, city hall is responding by working along with the neighbors and implementing some tools to include them in participation processes. Additionally, community gain empowerment by this process and actively seeks a part in the changes of the neighborhood and the rest of the city. With the participation in this workshop we seek to enlarge our understanding of the problem, and to improve the analysis that’s being done, maybe find better ways to do it and to take better conclusions about the issue. Keywords: citizen participation, urban planning, empowerment, urban renewal
Architectural Space and the Reproduction of Domestic Ideals: Families Negotiating Contemporary Domesticity in the Tyneside Flats
* Heba Sarhan, Northumbria University, United Kingdom
Rosie Parnell, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
The UK government's plan for brownfield development amplifies the influence of limited availability of land on strategies taken for implementing inclusive residential contexts. This situation highlights the need to consider opportunities for regenerating existing dwelling units to accommodate needs of contemporary family domesticity. Drawing upon Lefebvre (1991), space has an active role in the process of social change. This leads to the assumption that existing dwelling models can sustain the flow of cultural change and the reproduction of the home ideals over time. However, a gap between the understanding of the spatial qualities of the dwelling models of the mid-twentieth century and the contemporary domestic paradigm forms an obstacle facing the process of regeneration. This study focuses on changes in the socio-cultural dimensions behind the ideals governing residents' use of space in the home in England. Specifically, it focuses on the implications of socio-cultural diversity on families' domestic practices and meanings. The acknowledgement of spatial representations of such changes suggests the need to explore the qualities of the contemporary dwelling model with a focus on the transformative spatial qualities which support social changes. From such a perspective, underpinning commonality of ideals shaping existing dwelling models and diversity of contemporary communities raises a question about the way contemporary domesticity negotiates the ideals materialised in domestic architecture. Taking a qualitative approach, multimodal data collection methods are employed throughout the stages of the fieldwork to explore physical and intangible dimensions of the spatiality of 6 diverse home experiences in the Tyneside flats. These flats represent a prevalent housing type in Newcastle, which stems from the Victorian family dwelling model. The commonality in the qualities of such domestic precedents provides an opportunity to explore qualities associated with diversity of contemporary communities. An iterative process of revisiting of themes addressed through the theoretical framework was carried out based on those emerging from of the thematic analysis strategy followed in this research. This process developed a coherence in the ontological and epistemological aspects of the research. Findings describe the spatiality of multiple spheres of contemporary family domesticity and describe the spatial structure representing these spheres in its dynamic form. Additionally, the themes elucidate the transformative spatial qualities associated with the spatial and temporal relationships between the different spheres of domesticity. Such findings support descriptions of the spatiality of individual privacy and shared time in the family dwelling from previous socio-cultural research. Particularly, diversity addressed in this research clarifies homogeneity in the qualities of the spatiality of the participants’ domesticity. Besides, illuminating dynamics of the spatial structure of the contemporary dwelling contributes to the critique of theories of the flexibility of space. On the methodological level, this research supports that following a multidisciplinary approach allows exploring architectural qualities through the totality of the lived space. Thus, minimising the gap between the understanding of each of the spatial, social and experiential dimensions of domestic architecture.
The development and decline of the central pedestrian zone in Tianjin, China
* Xiuchen Wu, Peking University, China
Pedestrian zones in China were major government initiatives as the land values rose over the 2000-2010 period, but many of them began to decline after 2010. The case of Tianjin is especially interesting, which occupied a key central location in a central district. The aim of this research is to find out why these zones declined and whether measures could be taken to correct the situation. Prior to the present research, related research rarely considered the impact of time on pedestrian zones, such that this study could be effective in reversing the trend. The research project is divided into two parts: macro-level analysis and meso-level analysis. The former uses models to study the impact of socioeconomic factors and traffic factors on the pedestrian zone, and the latter focuses on using the data of field investigation to carry out comparative study and find out the mechanisms of change. In the macro-scale analysis, the change of population, disposable income, gross floor area of each shopping center and the introduction of a subway system from 2005 to 2019 have been addressed. In central urban area, the shopping center's total GFA has increased by 266%, similar to the cumulative growth rate of the product of population and disposable income. It seems increase in disposable income contributes more to the expanding of shopping centers than the population growth. Adopting Huff model, the result shows the number of people attracted by the pedestrian zone has nearly halved, which could be attributed to the increase in people's spending power leading to fewer people needed to support the operation of shopping malls of the same GFA. Analyzing the travel data containing transportation mode and travel distance of citizens, the regression model result shows metro as the transportation mode least sensitive to travel distance, while walking and cycling methods are the most sensitive. Huff model shows the subway promotes the attractiveness of the central pedestrian zone, while walking and cycling are the opposite. Besides that, the distribution of subway stations and subway lines also bring more people to the pedestrian zone. In meso-level analysis, a 2-week field study was conducted. The fieldwork at the central pedestrian zone involved formal counts of flows, influx of people at the entrance and number of people in each shopping facility, in keeping with the previous research in 2005 and the need for valid comparisons. Not only did the flow of people decrease, the distribution of the people also declined greatly. The result shows two new metro stations and surrounding shopping centers have the largest patronage level measured by the number of customers in the store, and the pedestrian street with subway stations at both ends has more people than the other pedestrian street in the pedestrian zone. Whether there is a connection between the people in two subway stations, the impact of commercial formats on the patronage rate, the role of behavioral elements and the interrelationship between various elements and phenomena need further study.