|Monday, June 22|
Flourishing green cities: Harnessing collective visions of green roofs, walls, and facades to develop a roadmap for change
* Kate Lee, University of Melbourne, Australia
Leisa Sargent, UNSW Business School, University of New South Wales, Australia
Nicholas Williams, University of Melbourne, Australia
Kathryn Williams, University of Melbourne, Australia
Governments around the world are moving towards sustainable, liveable, and resilient cities, with green infrastructure in the form of green roofs, walls, and facades being critical. Despite this there has been a relatively slow pace of change. We sought to contribute to international efforts toward advancing green infrastructure by drawing on a novel organisational development approach to creating transformational change in complex systems. Termed Appreciative Inquiry, this methodology involves creating a shared vision of the best of what is and could be and identifying the best opportunities to leverage for change. In line with this approach, we designed and ran daylong workshops across two major metropolitan cities involving stakeholders across academia, government, industry, and the community. During the workshops, attendees progressed through a process designed to harness their collective wisdom, first uncovering the best examples of green roofs, walls, and facades, their ideal visions of the future, opportunities for change, and critical strategic milestones to achieve this in the short, medium, and longer term. The workshops were co-developed with a diverse design team in the preceding months, focusing on the key topics for change, materials and questions to drive and direct discussion, and selecting key groups/attendees from the entire green roofs, walls, and facades system. We also sought involvement from members of the design team in co-interpreting the results and alongside attendees, in co-creating a roadmap for change. Overall, this highlights a novel approach for creating collective movement toward envisioned green cities that are healthy, liveable, and resilient, and provides a blueprint for approaching other avenues of change required for sustainable and equitable societies.
Beyond Motivation: Understanding Barriers to Purchasing Sustainable Palm Oil
* Cassandra Sundaraja, University of New England, Australia
Amy Lykins, University of New England, Australia
Donald Hine, University of New England, Australia
Tropical rainforests in Southeast Asia are regularly cleared to grow palm oil—a popular, versatile, and inexpensive oil crop. However, these forests under threat are essential in regulating worldwide water cycles, maintaining global temperatures, and are home to several critically endangered species (e.g., orangutan). Boycotting palm oil has been proposed as a method of consumer action against deforestation. Unfortunately, this would result in significant, negative impacts on local farmers and economies. Following interviews with palm oil experts, the proposed solution was to encourage consumer demand for certified sustainable palm oil (SPO), grown without deforestation (Author, Year). The current study aimed to understand barriers that Australian consumers might face in purchasing products with SPO, using the Behaviour Change Wheel as a model to investigate the specific factors of capability, opportunity, and motivation (COM-B). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 Australian adults. Transcribed data were subjected to framework analysis, resulting in themes consistent with COM-B factors. These factors informed the development of a survey completed by 781 Australian consumers. A linear regression predicting SPO purchasing behaviour revealed that COM-B derived items explained 49.8% of the variance in this behaviour, with awareness/knowledge contributing the most (18%). This research reinforces the need for tailored interventions promoting green behaviours based on the unique, specific barriers associated with each. With respect to palm oil, not only are people unaware of the problem, but they also receive contradictory information regarding what action is necessary. As palm oil is not always labelled such, consumers need to become familiar with the numerous terms used to refer to it and learn which brands utilize SPO. Enhancing consumers’ capability and opportunity by having awareness campaigns, implementing a national procurement policy to import only SPO, and enforcing mandatory labelling, could assist in encouraging this behaviour.
Cafeteria Assessment for Elementary Schools (CAFES): Benefits and challenges of mobile app development and use
* Kimberly Rollings, University of Notre Dame, United States
The Cafeteria Assessment for Elementary Schools (CAFES) is a reliable, valid, observation-based assessment tool that quantifies attributes of U.S. elementary school cafeteria environments linked to selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables during government-funded school lunches. Developed and tested using data from more than 45 elementary schools in five U.S. states, CAFES measures elements at the scale of individual object, container, furniture and display, and room within environments. CAFES data are scored and linked to intervention suggestions, many of which are low- and no-cost and can be immediately implemented. Although practical to use for initial onsite cafeteria data collection, the original paper-based CAFES version required tedious manual data entry, score calculations, and intervention identification. Therefore, a mobile application (app) version was developed. After providing a brief overview of the CAFES tool and results, this presentation will discuss the methodological development, testing, benefits, and challenges of the CAFES mobile app. Development required addressing issues relating to user interface and experience, open access and university copyright, funding, and communication with app developers. Testing, completed by five users who systematically compared use of the CAFES mobile app and paper versions, assessed accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and satisfaction. Testing results revealed that app use did improve accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Users, however, requested better app instructions and a desire to improve the app interface. Additional benefits and challenges of app development and use will be presented, as well as recommendations for researchers considering app development for environmental assessment tools. CAFES and the CAFES app can be used to identify and prioritize critical cafeteria areas for intervention and contribute to guidelines for cafeteria design, food presentation and layout, and other behavioral economics strategies (e.g., food labeling & signage) aimed at promoting and increasing fruit and vegetable selection and consumption among youth participating in government-funded meal programs.
Effect of time availability and other contextual factors on the quality of individual diets
* Nazli Koseoglu, James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Tony Craig, James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Simone Piras, James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Individual dietary choicess have an impact on both individual health and the wider environment. To incentivise healthier and more sustainable diets, it is first necessary to understand what the main barriers to making better dietary choices are. While the barriers directly or indirectly related to finances such as the effect of income (Dowler, 1997), willingness and ability to spend on food (Darmon and Drewnowski, 2015; Yuxia, 2019), level of education (Fraser et al., 2000), and extent of deprivation (Finger et al., 2013) on the dietary choices have received significant research interest; those related to time, a partial substitute for money in food and overall household production (Becker, 1965), have not. Here we explore the combined and isolated effects of time availability, allocation of time to food related activities and effect of feeling rushed on the individuals’ diet quality. The data analysis are conducted in two stages, first we examined the population distribution in relation to time allocated to food related activities and being rushed using the 2015 UK time use data (Gershuny and Sullivan, 2017). These findings were used to inform the design of a questionnaire to collect empirical data on both time availability and dietary outcomes. The next step will be analysing the data gathered through the questionnaire. The research will be used to inform to the design of more effective and cost-efficient policy interventions aimed at improving dietary choices at the population level. A further research ambition is to undertake a cross-cultural comparison and understanding of the salience of time-related factors on individuals’ diets. We plan to examine comparable time-use datasets (e.g. the Canadian time use data (Statistics Canada, 2017)), and to explore possibilities to collect comparable primary data in these countries.