|Monday, June 22|
Revisiting the Housing Production System in Nunavik through the dwelling perspective
* Marika Vachon, Université Laval, Canada
The habitat situation in Nunavik, Québec, is complex and various ontological realities intersect in different socio-cultural contexts, whether “in the North” with Inuit actors carrying their knowledge, values and traditions, or “in the South” according to the realities of the provincial and federal organizations involved. Current governance frameworks in the housing field are still derived from “modern” thinking systems, based on a technical rationality logic, while indigenous and Inuit peoples are more likely to recognize themselves in so-called wild-type thinking systems (Lévi-Strauss 1962) or mythical (Roux 2002). In this context, how can Nunavik housing development models be consistent with the realities, aspirations and dwelling of Inuit communities? The research project aims to question the adequation of the current governance’s housing production model in Nunavik with the representations, experience, relationality and materiality of the dwelling’s meaning in the North. What are the user’s tactics (de Certeau, 1990) implemented to build a sense of dwelling? How could alternative modes of governance, inspired by the “fragile thinking” (Vattimo 2012), be meaningful and better adapted to the material, intangible and symbolic aspirations of Northerners? The theoretical framework is anchored in the context of post-colonial governance and in the cultures of dwelling, approached according various points of view: philosophical/symbolic (Ingold 2013, Goetz 2011, Roux 2002, Bourdieu 1983), experiential (Stock 2015, Lazzarotti 2013) and sociocultural (Segaud 2017, Rapoport 1972). Using a qualitative-interpretative approach, consistent with indigenous research methods, “intellectual bricolage” (Levis-Strauss, 1962) is proposed for a phenomenological meaning-making search. The symbolic (cosmology, rituals, etc.) and experiential aspect (practices, habitus, etc.) will be linked with the sociocultural context and artifacts (texts, materiality, etc.), in order to construct the inuit’s dwelling meaning. The data collection and analysis will indeed consist in: - Literature review and linguistic analysis (hermeneutic) relating to dwelling phenomena for inuit people. - Review of user’s tactics implemented to build a sense of dwelling: literature, observations and semi-directed interviews. - Analysis of the gaps between the tactics and the official ways of doing, in order to identify the significant elements for the reorganization of the modes of governance of the housing: cartography of the official and informal processes (participatory sessions) related to the evolving socio-historical context. Facing a housing production’s framework that is not adapted to the cultural realities of the North, users implement various tactics in order to rebuild a sense of home. These tactics, observed in the experiential dimension of dwelling, could become knowledge-production activities and eventually serve as a way of reorganizing the modes of governance in agile and open-ended ways. Housing production processes that take into account the meaning of inuit dwellings could lead to alternatives, meaningful housing governance, better adapted to the material, intangible and symbolic aspirations of Northerners. The research project is at methodological development stage and the presentation would permit to discuss issues regarding the operationalization of conceptuals aspects into prospective research ways.
An Experimental Study on the Influence of Environmental Noise on Students Emotion
* Zhen Zhang, Tongji University, China
Leiqing Xu, Tongji University, China
The aim of this study was to explore the influences of environmental noise on individuals?emotion during cognitive activities. The environmental noise with different sound source compositions and characteristics were divided into three typical levels, namely low 55dB, medium 65dB, high 75dB, based on the field survey data of 10 typical schools in a high-density city, Shenyang, China. To simulate the interference of external noise on learning spaces, audios of three typical levels recorded in actual environments were played in laboratory, with their SPL reduced to low-45dB, medium-55dB, high-65dB, respectively. The visual tracking task was taken as the cognitive activity. 20 undergraduate students participated in the experiment. EDA (electrodermal activity) and PD (pupil diameter) was measured during the task. The average EDA and average PD were taken to indicate the emotional impact degree. The Std. EDA and Std. PD were taken to indicate the degree of emotional change. Every time after the task, participants filled the questionnaire to assess the subjective annoyance and stress degree. The experiment used within-participants design to eliminate the influence of individual differences. Latin square design was taken to avoid the order effect. Participants were arranged to practice in advance to avoid the practice effect. The results showed that to objective indicators, the significant difference only was found on ( F=5.75, P=0.006), there was no significant differences on the average EDA, average PD and Std. PD under the influence of three typical levels of environmental noise; the medium-55dBA road noise has the highest impact degree of emotion and the range of emotion change. To subjective indicators, there are significant differences both on the annoyance degree (F=18.11, P=0.00) and the stress degree ( F=15.38, P=0.00), the higher the level of road noise, the higher the subjective annoyance and stress degree are. The value of objective indicators didnt increase as expected with the increase of SPL, it may because the real-time changes of physiological and eye movement indexes are the result of the joint influence of sound pressure level and sound source, the intermittent sound source such as whistle sound, bird sound etc. is real-time for physiological and eye movement indexes.
Hidden in Plain Sight: Design Ethnography, Social Justice, and Sex Work
* Alison Grittner, University of Calgary, Canada
Research Objectives: my dissertation research will explore the place of sex work in Canada through two main objectives: 1) To explore the emplaced experiences of female-identified sex workers living in supportive housing in Calgary, Alberta 2) To understand the role of the built environment in the place-based marginality of sex work. The research aims to answer the following two key questions: 1) How do everyday place-based experiences shape the well-being and stigma of sex workers? 2) How can sex workers’ lived experiences inform the design of supportive housing and advance spatial justice? Research Design: This study is guided by a critical feminist theoretical framework, highlighting the key domains of identity, exclusion, and power surrounding gender, nestled within emancipatory goals (Code, 2002; Harding & Norberg, 2005). Grounding the study and aligning with this theoretical lens is design ethnography methodology, an action-oriented fusion between the social sciences and design that “unites the past-present tense of in-depth ethnographic research with the future orientation of design to rework how we understand temporalities, environments and human activities” (Pink, Mackley, Morosanu, Mitchel, & Bhamra, 2017, p. 5). Design ethnography situates the built environment as a “site for future-making, change, and intervention” (Pink et al., 2017, p. 4). Ethnography is particularly appropriate for place-based research as its methodological emphasis on cultural conditions and processes allows us to understand how culture and material environments interact (Grittner, 2019). Multisensory spatial methods that seek to equalize power relations between researcher and participants, privilege multiple identities and voices, and facilitate empowerment in alignment with critical feminist theory (Harding & Norberg, 2005; Hesse-Biber, 2013). Further, Pink (2015) explains that place is the location of the body immersed in the “materiality and sensoriality of the environment” (p. 4). Understanding that ethnographic field work evolves in response to the research process (O’Rielly, 2005), multisensory methods for this study may involve: go-along interviews (Kusenbach, 2003), photo-documentation (Suchar, 2004), body mapping (Gastaldo, Magalhães Carrasco, & Davy, 2012; Sweet & Ortiz, 2015), spatial mapping (Grittner, 2019; Grittner & Sitter, 2019), creative spatial visualization (Grittner, 2019; Grittner & Burns, in press), and soundscapes (Droumeva, 2015). The multisensory methods will be both participant and researcher created. The overall goal of the design ethnography process is to co-design spatial recommendation for supportive housing for sex workers. As such, the final phase of the research will involve participatory design charettes with both sex workers and support providers. This study will focus on one specific place-typology: supportive housing. The literature identifies supportive housing for sex workers as a critical element to advance spatial justice, wellness, and belonging (Lazarus, Chettiar, Deering, Nabess, & Shannon, 2009; Shannon et al., 2009). The specific supportive housing project will be identified through discussions with Vancouver and Calgary providers: Atira, RainCity Housing, and HIV Community Link. It is anticipated that these agencies may act in an advisory capacity during the course of the study, including supporting participant recruitment.