|Monday, June 22|
The school design process for Flexible Learning Spaces Application: Establishing supporting tools for the process of Design and Renovation of schools for active learning approaches
* Gabriela Yoshitani da Luz, Chiba University, Japan
Kaname Yanagisawa, Chiba University, Japan
In a fast and interconnected world, the education field is experiencing challenges to educate children and keep them engaged in the learning process. Therefore, over the last decades, the educational area is progressively moving from didactic teacher-led instruction to constructivist approaches to learning. But, while educators rethink pedagogy and increasingly employ a student-centered approach, the traditional layout of classrooms, typified by rows of desks and chairs, no longer lends itself to the educational practices taking place, that has led to an international movement of designers rethinking educational spaces, creating new generation learning environments that allow more dynamic teaching. However, a literature review revealed that studies typically focus on the design phase of learning environments. Still, there are few data about the types of practices that ensue in these spaces, how they are perceived, and with what effect. It is possible to identify the absence of evidence around what works and why in learning environments and the urgent need for further studies to underpin the significant investments into learning environments. Therefore, the research aims to address this lack of data highlighted by reviews of research in this area by providing insights from the users of flexible learning spaces into the perceived relationship between the built learning environment and teaching, learning, and student wellbeing. So, focusing on an analysis of the role of the interrelationship person-environment, it was chosen to use Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE), a type of approach to the built environment which seeks to assess the setting in a period of use to identify successes and failures derived both from the design stage, the implementation or from the use itself. This research aims to evaluate and understand the relationship between the users and the physical space, analyzing the efficiency and quality of school’s usage throughout the day. For the study, elementary schools from Japan and Brazil are being analyzed, with the research in the current level of data collection. The main used method is The Behavioral Mapping, which consists of a quick recording of observations on users' behavior and activities in each environment. It is an effective instrument for identifying spatial arrangements, registering flows, and spatial relationships. Followed by the observation survey, teachers answer a questionnaire about their satisfaction and impressions about the current classroom design, for comparison with the data collected, and to have the perspective of how they manage the environment and in which way the design helps or interferes in their daily activities. As a result, it is expected to set potentialities and deficiencies of the study cases and, from that, to establish guidelines for the design of future flexible learning spaces, especially solutions for the adaptation of traditional schools that have an environment that does not attend their new needs and dynamics. This research is being developed during Masters, and the goal is to study it deeper during the doctoral, so the author wants to think about new ways of analyzing the data collected and new methods of POE.
Co-presence in the shared study space: the spatial-temporal dimension of college students' social networks
* Yaoyi Zhou, Human Ecology College, Cornell University, United States
Although sharing study space supports collaboration and teamwork among college students from different backgrounds, many students still congregate within their own social groups. The “homophily” tendency (McPherson et al., 2001) to establish social network ties with similar others created barriers for out-group members to form diverse ties in the “newcomer” settings, which may affect the way minority members receive information and resources. In the age of virtual communication, does the physical space continue to play significant roles in shaping college students’ social networks? This research studies the social dimension of the shared study space by exploring whether the co-presence in study space is related to college students' social network formation, especially for students in minority groups. This project studied the whole network of two cohorts of graduate students in the same department (n=26), who share a study space in the non-assigned desk arrangement. Their friendship and advice networks were examined with the homophily of nationality, gender, cohort, and co-presence in the space. The social network data was collected through a survey questionnaire, and each student’s room keycard access history in the past six months was used to calculate the co-presence between every two students. The Quadratic Assignment Procedure (QAP) analysis was used to examine the correlation between the network matrices. Data collection was finished in December 2019. The preliminary result suggests that at a dyadic tie level, co-presence in space is significantly correlated with the presence of friendship and advice network tie. At the individual student level, access frequency of the shared study space is correlated with student's friendship network size, which predicts the perceived social support received from the graduate student group. The results also show that access frequency is correlated with the number of advice contacts in different nationalities and gender. It suggests that shared study space plays an essential role for international students to receive emotional support and academic information in a new environment. This study can help space planners to answer the following question: why there is still a need for a study space designated to a specific group of college students, considering the other choices students have all over the campuses? It is among the few studies to explore how co-presence in non-assigned space settings affect the formation of social relations. By examining the relationship between self-reported data and longitudinal behavioral data for co-presence measurement, this study also contributes to the methodology of studying space occupancy and utilization, which may have significant application value for Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) studies. For this workshop, I will appreciate the feedback on the applications of the study result and discuss the opportunities and challenges of applying social network methods in People-Environment studies. Keywords: Co-presence; Post-Occupancy Evaluation; Learning environment; Architectural programming; Social network. Reference: McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 415-444.
The evolving models of high school design and how they impact the place attachment of Australian adolescents
* Tim Baber, University of New South Wales, Australia
This research is in its first year, with the researcher expecting to have his PhD candidature confirmed in January 2020. With the increasing density of Australian cities, Australian state education authorities are building new schools in urban centres on parcels of land much smaller than in previous eras. Framed by a phenomenological approach to place, this research uses place attachment theory as the means by which to understand adolescents’ bonds with their school grounds. It aims to identify not just the extent of attachment, but also, the 'what' to which adolescents are attached. Drawing upon the work of Altman and Low (1992), Moore and Graefe (1994), and, Scannell and Gifford (2017), place attachment is defined as the cognitive-emotional bond to a meaningful setting. Scannell & Gifford’s (2010) ‘Person-Process-Place’ place attachment model will be used to frame the identification of adolescent place attachment at three different school place types. Underlying this research is a curiosity sparked by Stedman’s (2002) question, ‘what kind of place is this’? The research asks: ‘what are the meanings of adolescent place attachment at three different school grounds? It hypothesises that the place qualities of each school type impact adolescent place attachment differently, and aims to identify these differences in relation to the varied physical and social elements of each school type. Qualitative case study methodology will be used to identify the place attachments of 14 and 15 year olds at three case study schools. One school is in a rural setting, featuring an abundance of space, and varied play and socialising areas. The other two are in urban settings, with one featuring a number of varied play and socialising areas, while the other is accommodated in a newly-built 14 storey tower, with little outdoor space and few play and socialising areas. The methodological approach seeks to capture the ‘emergent narrative’ (Patterson, Williams & Schrel, 1994; Williams, 2014) of adolescents’ place meanings and attachments. Students attending the three schools will be invited to create individual written and photographic essays of their school place attachments. From these, a number of focus groups will be formed, with participants having the opportunity to present their work to their peers, and hear from others about theirs. From this process, it is anticipated that each group will be able to synthesise emerging themes. The student’s narratives (essays and transcripts of focus group discussions) will provide the data for the research. Three contributions to theory are anticipated. Firstly, the place dimension of place attachment theory will be further understood, specifically from the point of view of adolescent development. Secondly, the meaning of adolescent place attachments at schools will be identified, making a contribution to the phenomenological understanding of adolescent school ground relationships. Finally, it is expected that this research will highlight the physical and social characteristics of school grounds that promote or restrict adolescent development. The researcher would greatly appreciate tips and guidance regarding how he ensures his research develops new theory. Keywords: adolescent, secondary schools, place attachment, place meaning