|Monday, June 22|
Signs with a side of fries: The influence of outdoor advertising on visits to retail food outlets by adolescents
* Alexander Wray, Western University, Canada
Consumption of food and beverages high in fat, sodium, and free sugars have been linked to a wide range of chronic health conditions including heart disease, hypertension, cancers, and diabetes. The diets of Canadian adolescents unfortunately contain many of these foods and beverages in large quantities. These consumption patterns result in lower academic performance, negative mood, and increase the risk of chronic disease in later life. While socioeconomic factors are recognized to influence adolescent diet behaviour, little research has explored the information environment's effects. Preliminary research would suggest the availability of outdoor advertising in a local area has an effect on the dietary choices of adolescents, though little explores exposure to outdoor advertising and affects on dietary choices. There are three theoretical frames of reference for the proposed analyses. First, I am informed by Joyce’s involvement-reaction matrix of the psychological processing of advertising. Second, Adams and Jansson’s articulation of a theory of communication geography is a useful interpretation of how place and people shape advertising. Finally, Glanz’s model of community nutrition food environments articulates the important role of the information exposures in shaping food behaviours within an individual’s activity space. Using a novel spatiotemporal approach, this study leverages individual-level spatial data to track exposure to outdoor advertising, and subsequent visits to retail food outlets by teenagers. This study uses a smartphone application (SmartAPPetite) to collect individual space-time information about adolescents (13-17) in London, Ontario, Canada from October 2018 to May 2019. These individual spatiotemporal tracks are linked to the locations of outdoor advertisements and retail food outlets, with further information about the advertising and menu content of each location used to contextualize these exposures. Socio-demographic features, specific elements of advertisements, nutritional content, proximity to retail food outlets, and the magnitudes of exposure to advertisements are linked to the volume and types of food outlets visited by each adolescent. These patterns result in profiles of how advertising affects teenage dietary behaviour, with a temporal pathway. This study uncovers the information-based exposure mechanisms that inform adolescent decision-making related to food and beverage consumption. In addition, this study could inform government regulation of food and beverage advertising targeted at youth. This study also makes a methodological contribution to people-environment studies through its analysis of spatiotemporal interactions between multiple exposure sources in an individual’s activity space. The Young Researchers Workshop is an ideal forum to seek feedback on my theoretical framing and methodology. I believe my theoretical framing of the research may be overly positivist, leading to opportunities for critical reflection. In addition, my methodology would benefit from robust discussion of the limitations in linking individual spatiotemporal tracks with point-based exposures.
The impact of flexible spatial planning on people and environment over time
* Antonia Stratmann, RWTH Aachen University, Germany
The presentation demonstrates that the approach of flexibility in spatial planning is a possible solution to meet people and environmental needs over time at different paces. As the issue 3 deals with the re-qualification, recomposing and re-use of spaces, the approach of flexibility is a possible pathway. Flexibility is a solution because it can create multifunctional structures in which spaces can take place simultaneously, parallel and next to each other. This allows for larger occupancy of the space. Flexibility in spatial planning essentially influences three points and is influenced by this in turn itself: (1) time, (2) people and (3) environment. (1) The changes over time and needs of future generations are not predictable. No matter if slow or fast developing, adjustment is achieved through flexibility. (2) Spaces should be flexible, adaptable for the changing needs of people over time. (3) When it comes to conserving resources and the environment, more flexible action is needed. Cities in particular are a major consumer of resources and at the same time a habitat for people. Therefore, the research question is: which impact do time, people and the environment connected in space have on the approach of flexibility and vice versa? An international literature research shows the necessity of flexible spatial planning and the impact towards environment and people. The present results give an overview, starting from the early 1960s, where J. Jacobs (1961) was dealing with the subject and up to the present. Current literature takes up re-use, re-qualification, recomposing on a spatial level. The authors' studies are compiled and brought into context. The topics people and environment are being brought together from literatures and contrasted with the changes of time and pace.
A pattern language for urban commons: resident participation in UK cohousing shared landscapes
* Aimee Felstead, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
This paper presents the preliminary patterns of urban commoning identified from a first stage analysis of UK cohousing case studies. A renewed co-housing movement in the UK presents novel ideas for sustainable approaches to new residential provision. Shared landscapes are a prominent feature within cohousing designed to afford and encourage social interaction (Meltzer, 2005; Williams, 2005) natural and collective stewardship (Ruiu, 2016; McCamant, Durett, & Hertzman, 1994). Despite the potential benefits, the phenomena that contribute to the success of shared residential landscapes are yet to be succinctly identified, theorised and made readily available to residential communities. This paper argues that the solutions for successful shared residential landscapes lie within the complex interactions between residents, their community and spatial surroundings. As well as eliciting empirical evidence from UK cohousing case studies, this research draws upon commons (Helfrich & Bollier, 2019; Foster & Iaione, 2016; Ostrom, 1990) and urban design (Dovey & Wood, 2015; Thwaites, Mathers, & Simkins, 2013; Habraken, 1998) theory to form a new conceptual framework for shared residential landscapes as urban commons. The novelty of this research lies in the development of a methodology for identifying patterns from ‘A Pattern Language’ (Alexander et al., 1977). The research aims to identify social-spatial patterns that enable resident participation in shared urban landscapes. Following this, the patterns will be collated into a pattern language, acting as a collaborative tool between resident communities and professionals. This paper specifically focuses on the central research question: “What social, spatial and organisational patterns enable participation in cohousing landscapes as a form of urban commons?” This is answered through a qualitative mixed-method approach of six cohousing case studies in the UK, chosen based on their occupied status, urban location and possession of shared outdoor spaces. To explore both social and spatial aspects the study utilises participant observations, photo surveys, ‘walk around’ interviews, document analysis and participatory workshops. The first stage of data collection includes research diary notes from visits to case study sites as an active volunteer participant in cohousing community work days, pilot interview transcripts and corresponding ‘walk around’ site photos from cohousing residents, interviews with design professionals who have collaborated with the cohousing cases. An inductive analysis is undertaken firstly through ‘within-case’ open coding, to allow key problems and solutions to emerge, and secondly, by a cross-case analysis to identify common patterns. Preliminary patterns will later be confirmed or adapted through participatory workshops, further data collection and existing theory. The research presents the preliminary patterns for urban commons in cohousing landscapes and a methodology for identifying and testing patterns across social and spatial dimensions. These results contribute theoretically to an emerging urban commons theory and practically as a pattern language applied to community-led residential projects. At this mid-way stage the researcher seeks to evaluate the methodological and analytical approach so far and discuss the next steps in confirming and testing patterns to develop a pattern language.