|Monday, June 22|
Experimental Study on Depth Perception Evaluation Based on Environmental Visual Information While Changing View Points
* Haipeng Zhu, School of architecture, Tianjin University, China
Yuhang Kong, School of architecture, Tianjin University, China
Christoph Hölscher, School of architecture, Tianjin University, China
Ryuzo Ohno, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
The typical phenomenon of going through Chinese classical gardens is visitors could observe rich experience in a limited site which leads to a larger impression of the garden’s scale. One of the principle reasons for this perceptual bias is gardeners intentionally increase the frequency of spatial perception by means of manipulating the variation of visual information. This study aims to demonstrate the feature existed via the quantitative analysis of depth perception and the influence of different visual information. Most previous studies discuss this phenomenon in terms of qualitative description with fragmented perspectives taken from static points, lack of considering the ambient visual information while continuously changing observation points. This paper proposes that pictorial visual clues (occlusion, linear perspective, relative scale) effect depth perception when people change their viewpoint in a short distance with panoramas taken at Lvyin pavilion, Liu garden. Two empirical studies were conducted in a virtual CAVE environment (N=71) to detect the depth value of the garden, and participants’ eye-tracking data was collected by SMI Eye Tracking Glasses (120Hz). Based on quantitative data, the statistically significant difference in depth value while changing viewpoints was found in both studies. A second study further demonstrated the perspective of interior space significantly influences depth perception.
Virtual Reality for Older Adults with Movement Disorders: A Tool for Co-Designing Homes
* Shabboo Valipoor, University of Florida, United States
Ravi Srinivasan, University of Florida, United States
* Sherry Ahrentzen, University of Florida, United States
How do we design home modifications to a growing and increasingly diverse aging population with different mobility and accessibility needs? Using a person-centered approach to address such needs, we have developed a Virtual Reality (VR) tool — named CODY, for Co-Design for You — for experiencing and co-designing home alterations by individuals with movement disorders, specifically persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). CODY comprises a VR system and a gait analysis mat. The visual simulation is a bedroom with a connecting door to a bathroom. As a proof of concept, the first round of testing CODY is conducted using a matched pair experimental design. Thirty-nine participants were asked to use the system and walk from the bedroom into the bathroom, with the gait mat recording their movement. The experimental conditions had different door widths and door frame colors. Those in the “variable” condition were able to change the doorway design to their preference. Statistical analyses showed positive results for usability of the system and satisfaction among both healthy and Parkinsonian groups. Anxiety scores were consistently low in two groups after using the system. Results also showed that CODY was effective in detecting the difference between healthy and parkinsonian groups in terms of some movement performance measures, such as gait velocity and cadence of walk, depending on the experimental condition. In participants with PD, significant differences were observed between those who could design the doorway and those who could not. This difference was observed mainly in the distance of gaits and number of strikes. More experiments and further development of CODY is anticipated to offer an interactive system enabling persons with movement challenges to be co-designers of their own home modifications.
Cozy vs. Claustrophobic: Understanding the Effects of individual differences and small housing elements on users perceptions in Immersive VR
* Anne Seoyoung Lee, Cornell University, United States
Jisun Lee, Cornell University, United States
So-Yeon Yoon, Cornell University, United States
Living in a small space is often not an option but a reality due to life challenging emergencies such as natural disasters. Extensive research has been made to innovate small living space design using high technology. Researchers have created small virtual worlds as a healing modality for soldiers experiencing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder to have restorative experiences . In Kansas City, Missouri, there is an ongoing project called Veterans Community Project providing a community of tiny houses for homeless veterans . Despite these efforts to provide certain inhabitants comfortable small living experiences, studies testing the general population’s perceptions of tiny living space are scarce. To fully understand the experience of small living space, the second-best approach after a real-scale mockup is virtually experiencing the space in real-life scale. Today’s high-quality Virtual Reality technologies with head-mounted displays (HMD) offer lifelike experiences for viewers to feel as if they are really in the simulated environment. Therefore, the final purpose of the study is to minimize the discrepancy between the real and designed environments. The main goal of this study is to examine the threshold where people perceive the small space as comfortable using immersive VR that supports the sense of realistic scale. Another goal of this study is to examine the effects of personality, information processing styles, and gender on perceived spatial density. 18 participants experienced 10 small room conditions, environments being the same volume, but different conditions rendered in Enscape VR. Before the experiment, participants’ personalities, information processing styles, and gender were collected. After experiencing each room, participants’ comfort levels and emotional responses were measured with six questionnaires . Both results from the pre-study and the main studies will be presented. The study will provide insightful design implication to build comfortable living experiences in small spaces such as small houses and shelters.
Developing A Research Method for Studying Home Environments Using 3D Scanning, Wearable Technology, and Accessibility Scores
* Jung-hye Shin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
Kevin Ponto, Univesity of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
Youhung Her-Xiong, Univesity of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
Ross Tredennik, Univesity of Wisconsin-Madison, United States
Baby Boomers prefer to age in place even as their health declines, yet 99% of American homes do not offer features necessary to accommodate this desire. A third of American households will be headed by someone aged 65 or older within 15 years, and 40% of them will have one or more disabilities. This mismatch poses looming public health and policy challenges but research on interior home environments for older adults is scant. We aim to understand how accessibility within the home influences the functional independence, mobility, mental wellbeing, and health-related adaptive behaviors of older adults living with various physical disabilities. We developed 3D scanning and tracking technologies that allow detailed examination of the behavioral patterns of older adults as they occur in their homes. We tested the methodd 20 frail elders who received home modifications, and tracked their movements for 24 hours, pre and posttest. Each data set contains full 3D scanning and accessibility scores of the individual spaces of the house, coordinated with the participants’ behavioral data curated within the space, including Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) & Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as proxy indicators for stress levels, mobility levels, functional assessments, and the types and incidences of adaptive behaviors. We also added a set of qualitative data describing the nature of adaptive behaviors and participants’ reasoning behind them. The study demonstrated that the proposed data collection method yields a rich and highly accurate data set and that building a more extensive database is possible with the proposed method. This can open the door to interdisciplinary collaborations with policy makers, health care providers, caregivers and others, and can be used to educate future housing professionals by incorporating data driven design solutions into curricula using real-life examples.