|Tuesday, June 23|
Choosing green: rewards and barriers for museums commissioning LEED-certified buildings
* Georgia Lindsay, University of Tasmania, Australia
Laura Cole, University of Missouri, United States
Recognizing that building construction and operation account for nearly 40% of global carbon dioxide emissions (Global Alliance for Buildings and Construction, 2018), the U.S. Green Building Council created the LEED rating system to encourage sustainable building practices. Science museums– with missions to enhance science literacy for society – are increasingly pursuing LEED (Brophy & Wylie 2013). Simultaneously, there is a growing theory base for green buildings as “teaching tools” for sustainability, where scholars address complex physical and social factors that intertwine to deliver sustainability education through buildings (e.g., Cole, 2014; Barr 2011). This exploratory study investigates green design choices from the viewpoint of museum staff to uncover the opportunities and challenges they see for choosing LEED certification and then aligning their green building with educational opportunities. The current study builds on previous case study work by the authors, which examined physical museum environments and press coverage. Here we focus on interview data with executive directors, educational program directors, and facilities staff (n = 12) at seven LEED-certified science museums to illuminate decision-making processes. Round one of open coding allowed emergent themes to surface without a pre-determined framework; round two integrated themes discovered in previous phases of the project. What emerges is a complex picture of how museums understand their building as part of their collection. Political forces and fundraising issues have a strong impact on how “green” the building is and how explicit the sustainability communications are to visitors. Cultural institutions with public buildings have the opportunity to promote values of sustainability through both educational and construction practices. This research helps articulate how and why decisions about buildings, which last for a century or more, are rooted in the politics of now. We offer some ways forward to use the buildings of today to educate the publics of tomorrow.
The Impact of Green Building Certification on Organizational Behavior Issues: A Review and Research Agenda
* Alexander Yuriev, Concordia University, Canada
The popularity of green building certifications (e.g., BREEAM, LEED, GreenStar, etc.) in last decades has generated a large body of literature on their rentability, implementation and scope. Considering that most certified buildings are used for commercial and industrial purposes, multiple studies also focused on the impact of these certification programs on employees’ well-being, performance, and individual behaviors. However, the research evidence on how green building certifications contribute to overcoming common organizational behaviors issues is inconsistent and requires careful assessment. Therefore, the aim of this review is to systematically gather and analyze academic results on employee-related impacts of green building certifications. The obtained results have several implications for future research. First, scholars should attempt to establish a clearer link between green building certifications and key organizational behavior issues: job satisfaction, motivation, organizational culture and work-related stress. Specifically, do employees working in certified green buildings demonstrate lower rates of absenteeism, cooperate better in team and experience less anxiety over daily duties? Second, there is a lack of research on how these certification programs influence the likelihood of organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment. For instance, do such certifications lead to more recycling, resource conservation, and green suggestions? Third, little is known about whether green buildings with higher ratings have more positive impacts on employees’ well-being than buildings with lower ratings. Provided that third-party certifications (e.g., ISO 9001, ISO 14001) are frequently used for marketing purposes, it would be pertinent to examine if high scores in green building certifications are associated with more employee-related benefits, and not only with a better organizational image. Finally, the domain is dominated by quantitative studies, and few researchers explored beliefs and attitudes of employees towards such programs from a qualitative perspective. Such an approach might unveil previously overlooked factors that could play crucial role in greening buildings.
Architectural experiments and user comfort. The covered courtyard housing building as an answer for an ecological transition?
* Aline Barlet, École nationale supérieure darchitecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France
Christian Sallenave, École nationale supérieure darchitecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France
Denis Bruneau, École nationale supérieure darchitecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France
Emmanuel Mérida, École nationale supérieure darchitecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France
Jean-Jacques Soulas, École nationale supérieure darchitecture et de paysage de Bordeaux, France
In France, the construction of residential buildings with "covered courtyards" is prohibited by the Construction and Housing Code. However, some projects obtain a derogation for their experimental aspect, particularly in relation to the challenges of the energy transition. This contribution aims to evaluate inhabitants’ reactions, their adherence, their appropriation, their understanding of the changes in lifestyles and urbanity that this new habitat induces. The aim is to question the exemplarity and reproducibility of these innovations as a sustainable solution. Located in Bordeaux, the building studied includes one hundred and forty-nine social housing units, organized around a covered atrium. This space has been designed to reduce energy consumption, promote natural ventilation at mid-season and create a biodiversity space that can be appropriated by inhabitants, favourable to socialisation and exchanges. The multidisciplinary methodology used allows a global approach to the theme of ambiences and comfort, through interviews bringing together professional and inhabitant points of view, architectural surveys and relevant measurements made with regard to the inhabitants' discourse. Fifty-four interviews were conducted with a sample covering all the socio-cultural diversity encountered among the inhabitants of the building seven professional interviews. The analysis of the data collected then allows us to state the degree of satisfaction of the inhabitants with the neighbourhood, the aesthetics, the environmental quality, the comfort of use of the building, and the social links it allows. But above all, based on the findings, we are able to set out the conditions under which the transposition of this type of project is possible. In particular, the interdisciplinarity that characterizes these findings invites a true conceptual interdisciplinarity.
The Right Light? History, Assumptions, and Expectations in Residential Daylighting Design
* Terri Peters, Ryerson University, Canada
Elizabeth De Jong, Ryerson University, Canada
Appropriate levels of daylight in buildings are necessary to support 1) environmental sustainability as this reduces the need for electric lighting, 2) human health and wellbeing as there are numerous studies supporting our physiological and psychological needs for daylight; and 3) architectural quality as daylight is one of the most significant criteria in design quality. National and international standards, metrics, and guidelines about daylight relate largely for offices, schools, and certain other environments for productivity. The interdisciplinary question of the right light is of particular concern in the case of high density apartment dwellings which represent the fastest growing typology of new homes in North America, and which numerous studies show have unacceptable levels and qualities of daylight. These dwellings are typically small, have daylight from only one orientation, and are deep and narrow with a 1:2 or even 1:3 aspect ratio. The lack of quantity and quality of daylight in these dwellings has a negative impact on building performance and sustainable design in the context of climate change, and also on liveability and quality of life for inhabitants. The information and assumptions designers made about daylight are used in environmental simulations as a main way that designers model and predict if a design will meet performance standards. This presentation articulates and defines this problem of the “right light” in apartment dwellings in the architecture, engineering, and environmental psychology literatures, compares how certain metrics and national standards have approached this question around the world, and contextualizes the findings in the history of metrics and standards in residential dwellings. The goal of this study is to increase understanding of daylighting in urban apartment dwellings, and to improve the assumptions made about daylight which inform measures of sustainable design.