|Tuesday, June 23|
Conservation of Traditional Stone-Defense for flood and landslide: A study from Shiga prefecture, Japan
* Chiho Ochiai, Kyoto University, Japan
West side of Lake Biwa in Japan has been suffering from floods and landslide since long times. The local residents have a history of living with floods while enjoying the blessings of nature. Also, this area is known for granite stone that are for producing masonry and this stone was quarried from the local mountain. The purpose of the study is to identify and re-evaluate the stone dikes and the stone walls called Shishi-gaki (wild boar wall) to understand the past people’s effort to cope with disasters. As the survey method, decipherment study, interview survey and on-site field survey were conducted. 18th-century documents and maps stored in the community center and a local museum are deciphered and compared with maps and aerial photographs of the present. Interview survey was conducted targeting elderly residents who used to practice and remember the traditional counter measures. In Kosei area, each village has several traditional ways both tangible and intangible to prevent the flood and landslide. However, as civil engineering progresses, the remains of stone built in the area and the traditional measures are forgotten. In the place where the river bends, a bank made of large stones was built over five years by the efforts of the residents in 1852. The river has been repeatedly affected by flood, and this dike has been realized through the appeal of residents. This area used to be surrounded by a stone wall about 1-meter-high to protect the village from wild animal damage like a wild boar. 1935 heavy rain caused a large amount of earth and sand flowed into the village. In addition to repairing the bank along the river, local residents took measures against the disaster by raising the wild boar wall. These stone remains have many stories to tell and important to be re-evaluated.
Territorial identity continuity through memory: an analysis of flood risk management
* Pierre Dias, Laboratoire Espace, Université dAix Marseille, France
Samuel Robert, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Hélène Rey-Valette, CEE-M, Montpellier University, France
Nicole Lautrédou, CEE-M, INRA SUPAGRO, France
Marie-Laure Trémélo, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Alexandra Schleyer-Lindenmann, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Risk managers share experiences and knowledge related to the territory where they work and (mostly) live. They remember traditions, urban forms and events that shape their daily practices. The construction of this social memory allows an appropriation and a mastery of the territory today. However, when it comes to adapting and anticipating important changes linked to global warming, such as increased coastal flooding, one can wonder how this shared memory influences management? To explore the subjective memory of this group, we conducted 11 semi-structured interviews with public actors in the management of flood risks (town administration/associations) in a town on the French Mediterranean coast highly exposed to this risk: Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. The interviews focus on three themes: the memory of past events, the territorial identity and the prevention and management measures put in place. A thematic analysis shows that the interviewees express a strong territorial identity, rooted in the local environment and traditional practices. Managers rely on vernacular knowledge of flooding, transmitted through the generations, locatable in geographic space and in typical behaviours. Although official reports indicate 14 natural disasters over the past 35 years in this municipality, very few events are remembered, and their consequences are minimized. The interviews show a strong place attachment and dependence on coastal identity in this territory leading to the construction of a consistency between the memory of past floods, the current challenges and the management of future floods. Not considering the plurality of the past floods and minimizing future risks makes it possible to keep a continuous identity in connection with traditional knowledge and practices. The need for identity consistency influences the management of risks through a reconstruction of the past.
Effect of Colliery Company on Transformation of Coal Mining Cities after Closing a Mine in Omuta City, Fukuoka Prefecture
* Sota Adachi, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Toshio Otsuki, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Naohiro Taniguchi, Hokkaido University of Science, Japan
Atsuko Yasutake, Nagasaki University, Japan
Taisaku Hashimoto, Platinumtown Plan and Design Inc., Japan
In Japan, various cities are facing depopulation and management strategies for varied shrinking processes areas are required. Therefore, we focus on coal mining cities as advanced shrinking areas. Our study aimed to clarify effects of the colliery company on transformations of the coal mining area, Omuta city because previous studies focus on roles of governments and residents after closing mines. Achieving this, we analyzed not only transformation after closing a mine but also formation process of company housing areas. Methods are as follows. First, we analyzed the relationship between formation process of company housing areas and coal mining by literature materials. Second, we analyzed effects of the colliery company on development process of detached housing area with records of development completion and house organs. Finally, we analyzed transformations of age structures in detached housing area with national census. We made the following things clear; 1) Detached housing areas based on the support system for house ownership by the colliery company had been developed for workers in company housing sites at the eastern side, where constructions of company houses started. However, recently, detached housing areas were developed in company housing sites at the western side, where company houses had existed just before closing the mine. 2) The rate of developments by colliery company is big and recently this tendency is becoming stronger. 3) In detached residential area by the support system for house ownership, aging is faster than normal detached housing areas. We show the importance of our methodology considering formation process of company housing areas and company’s role to understand transformation of coal mining city. Additionally, our results imply that not only housing type but also its supply system influence transformation of age structure. Therefore, we should also consider housing supply system for balanced age structure in our shrinking society.
Exploring urban transformations with the audience-centered approach: the case of Tajrish Neighborhood in the city of Tehran
* Homa Hedayat, York university, Canada
Understanding how urban spaces transform across time, not only in the city but also in the head of citizens, is a complex process for designers. Defining what users of space defined as positive or negative transformations in relationship to urban quality imply studying how they are experienced in the context of daily lives, sometimes with contradictory meanings. The case of Tajrish square, in the old town of Teheran, presents a good example of the complexities of studying urban transformations in relationships to daily life experiences. On top of being a landmark of historical, religious and recreational-touristic value, the old town around Tajrish square has known various urban transformations in the last decade and become more deteriorated as a result. Being experts in their daily lives, citizens are active co-constructors of the various meanings of urban transformations, and the problems they may entail. In an effort to explore these transformations and what users define as urban quality, the presentation uses information from in-depth interviews conducted with thirty older citizens who experienced it firsthand. Using a socio-constructivist perspective, the presentation defines the changes in urban quality of the old town through the old residents’ point of view, who were asked questions about their appreciation of the neighborhood and its evolution. After being transcripted verbatim, the response were coded using an iterative process, using a “Grounded theory” approach. The results show transformations are seen through the prism of two categories “identity” and “life”. The results show that despite transformations in the neighborhood experienced as “negative”, for instance, the increase of deteriorated buildings and poor individuals, the Tajrish square is still represented as an important cultural and historical landmark. In this regard, while citizen felt the impact of various negative transformations in their “life”, these didn’t impact their feeling of “identity” toward Tajrish Square.