|Tuesday, June 23|
Change, time and sustainability: rates of change, the speed of time and coordinating the pace of modernity with energy consumption
* Robert Adam, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom
“Time is measure of change” (Aristotle, Physics), without change there is no time. “Time is an abstraction at which we arrive by the changes of things.” (Ernst Mach, 1883) If change is the means by which we measure time, the pace at which things change determines the rate of the passing of time. All things change but they do so at different velocities, and so it follows that time moves at different speeds. This principle is the key to managing the momentum of change in modern society with effective energy consumption. Variable speeds of change are identified by anthropologist Robert Boyd and biologist Peter Richerson in the relationship between biological and cultural evolution in dual inheritance theory. In 1949 the Analyste historian Fernand Braudel in La Méditerranée divided history into longue durée, conjonctures, and événements. The urban geographer M. R.G. Conzen put a “differential time response” on the town plan, building fabric, and land and building utilization patterns. In 1976, the British architect Frank Duffy developed a time-based analysis of the various components of buildings into seven layers ranging from the indefinite to day-to-day. This was taken up by Stewart Brand in How Buildings Learn. These studies can be brought together to manage the fundamental, but often overlooked, issue of longevity as a key factor in the reduction of energy consumption. In 2016, the US National Trust for Historic Preservation study, The Greenest Building: Quantifying the environmental value of building reuse, established substantial periods of carbon payback for new construction as opposed to the enhancement of building stock. This principle can be broken down to aspects of both urban and building design by bringing together and applying the work of Conzen and Duffy to produce design methodologies that coordinate the modern pace of change with the environmental benefits of longevity.
Influence of sleepiness on sustainable energy choice nudges: Loss framing and social norms
* Naoko Kaida, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Kosuke Kaida, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan
Nao Ishida, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Sustainable energy choice contributes to climate change mitigation. Decision-making aids such as nudge can facilitate consumer’s green choice when switching their energy. It has been known that nudges do (not) work in different issues and cultures. There also may be individual differences in nudge sensitivity, but little has been studied. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of nudges on renewable energy choice and to investigate the nudge sensitivity by temporal situations, specifically alertness/sleepiness, of recipients. Our hypotheses were: nudges facilitate renewable energy choice compared to no nudge, and the impact of a few nudges is more salient or blur among individuals less alerted due to excessive or subtle responsiveness. Data were collected through an online questionnaire survey on adults living in Tokyo, Japan (n = 660, male 50%, Mage = 46.75 years old, SD = 12.67). Ten nudge conditions and control condition were set and randomly assigned to the respondents (n = 60 each). Respondents were given an energy choice scenario with binary choice of 100% conventional energy source or 50% renewable energy source mixed, with nudge information attached. They were also asked to state their temporal sleepiness using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Binomial probability test results show that the probabilities of renewable energy choice were significantly higher in priming, framing gain and loss framing, default (ps < 0.001), mental accounting, decoy (ps < 0.05), and social norms (p < 0.1) than the control condition. Chi-squared test results indicate more individuals with higher sleepiness chose the renewable energy option in loss framing (χ2(1) = 8.31, p = 0.004) but less chose in social norms (χ2(1) = 3.37, p = 0.07). These results suggest that nudge can facilitate green choice and its impacts can become more or less effective depending on individual’s characteristics.
Exploring Attitudes and Behaviors towards Waste Reduction: A Social Media Intervention Study
* Xun Liu, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Naoko Kaida, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Liuna Geng, Nanjing University, China
Ting Liu, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Yuping Lin, Nanjing University, China
Waste generation on the household level has been one of the major environmental problems across the world. Considering the heavily use of social media in recent years, there might be another way to approach people, especially the young generation, on waste issues. Promoting self-enhancing attitude may also contribute to waste reduction. The present study aimed to examine (1) possible influence of social media on implicit and explicit environmental attitudes and behaviors, and (2) the influence of positive attitudes on waste reduction engagement. A five-week experiment—consisting of three periods, baseline, intervention and follow-up—were conducted with the participation of 76 Chinese college students (male=35; mean age=19.36 years old, SD=0.98) who were randomly assigned to either with or without social media (i.e., intervention or control) condition. Daily waste volume data were collected to assess behavior during the experiment, and data for two types of implicit association tests (IAT), the revised New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), the Extended Inclusion of Nature (EINS), Meaning in Life (MLQ), Hedonia and Eudaimonia Motivation for Activities (HEMA), and Schwartz’s value scale were collected in each period. ANOVA results showed that the intervention significantly increased awareness and had strong continuing effects. In the intervention group, IAT scores on loose/packed items had positive correlations with both self-reported waste reduction behavior and eudaimonia, during the intervention. The study also identified awareness, environmental values, and search for meaning in life as significant predictors of self-reported behaviors. This study revealed that positive attitudes such as seeking and develop the best in oneself, searching for meaning in life, and pro-environmental values could explain pro-environmental behaviors well. In general, it brings light to social media as an important tool to convey information and facilitate waste reduction. Keywords: Waste reduction, implicit attitude, intervention, social media, pro-environmental behavior
Reducing Litter through Social Norms Framing and Social Comparison
* Sik Chuen Yu, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Bowen Tay, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Roy Chen, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Sharon Ng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Sonny Rosenthal, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Rongjun Yu, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Littering is a pervasive problem. Although it is well established that social norms affect littering behavior (Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren, 1990; Huffman, Grossnickle, Cope, & Huffman, 1995; Krauss, Freedman, & Whitcijp, 1978), little is known about how the framing of social norms and social comparison can reduce littering. In this research, we investigate how these social factors affect littering behavior in a field experiment in Singapore. People use norms as reference points in their decision making (Kahneman, 1992). We argue that different framing of social norms could result in different reference points. A preliminary survey suggests 10% of Singaporeans litter. We expect the “10% of Singaporeans litter” message is more effective than the “90% of Singaporeans do not litter” message in reducing litter, because people are more sensitive to the difference in subjective values for changes to 10% than 90% (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). To examine the effects of social comparison on litter reduction, groups were placed in conditions to either reach the goal of 15% litter reduction or compete with another group for litter reduction amount. While previous research shows competitive versus non-competitive goals can influence behaviors differently (Austin, 1991; Löfstrand & Zakrisson, 2014), it is unclear how people react to these distinct goals in a prosocial context. The participants were also randomly assigned to reward conditions that either win a SGD$50 supermarket voucher or get a SGD$50 rebate on conservancy charges. A total of 72 non-adjacent residential blocks were selected from two neighborhoods and were randomly assigned to one of the nine conditions (2 x 2 x 2 + 1 control). The treatments were applied using posters, flyers, and door-to-door communication. Litter of each block was weighted and recorded daily. The experiment is ongoing and will last for twelve weeks. The results will be ready by June 2020.