|Tuesday, June 23|
Investigating a salutogenic approach to the design of school counseling spaces
* Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi, University of Northern Iowa, United States
Darcie Davis-Gage, University of Northern Iowa, United States
Emily Barnes, University of Northern Iowa, United States
Schools in the United States (U.S.) now increasingly provide counseling spaces/ offices that serve a student population with diverse mental health needs. More than half of students seeking mental health services do so through school-based counseling programs (Green et. al, 2013) and often within a multipurpose space that is allocated, rather than specifically designed, within the school building. Counselors are equipped with trauma-informed care principles through their education and training. However, they have limited design knowledge and control over their space to practice within a trauma-informed environment. In this study, we explore the influence of two domains- architecture+design, and counseling - on counseling spaces within elementary school environments, with a particular focus on determining salutogenic approaches. While school design in the U.S. is strongly informed by design guidelines such as Leadership in Environmental Education and Design (LEED) ratings and the WELL Building standards, there is a need for design to be also responsive to trauma and mental health needs. In this study, we draw upon theories (e.g., socio-ecological model, salutogenic model) and guidelines in design and counseling (e.g., LEED, WELL, Wheel of Wellness) to provide an integrated trauma-informed salutogenic perspective for analyzing and evaluating school counseling spaces. Visits to existing counseling spaces in 10 elementary schools in the midwestern U.S. are documented via photographs and notes. A qualitative content analysis of the photographs and notes demonstrates adherence (or lack of it) to the salutogenic framework created for this study. The paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of integrating the two domains for design improvements in school counseling spaces, and suggests future research and outreach opportunities.
At the edge of school architecture: indoor-outdoor interfaces in Quebec
* Melanie Watchman, Université Laval, Canada
Biophilic design research over the past decades has underlined that natural elements and processes offer benefits for children and adults. In Quebec, the relationship between interior and exterior spaces is even more critical for biophilic architecture given the important seasonal variations that generate different visual, thermal, olfactory and auditory experiences throughout the year. The aim of this research is to analyse and categorise indoor-outdoor interfaces in Quebec primary school environments in terms of biophilic experiences. Case study research was conducted in three primary schools in the Quebec City area. The study employed photographs and field measurements of environmental conditions as its principal data collection method and compared sensory experiences between indoor, in-between and outdoor environments. Repeated site visits provided the opportunity of measuring actual environmental conditions in the presence and absence of school occupants. Particular attention was given to the documentation and analysis of physical passage points between inside and outside as well as classrooms. The findings of this research demonstrate the value of inhabitable building edges to influence sensory gradients and contrasts, which are restricted or limited in indoor and outdoor spaces. The analysis also depicts ways of defining and measuring building interface variables which are crucial from the perspective of children’s access to natural elements and processes.
Childs Spatial Experience Through Playing in the Interfacing Spaces of Primary Schools Indoor and Outdoor Areas
* Busra Atam, Bahcesehir University, Turkey
Mehmet Emin Salgamcioglu, Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
The journey of the individual through life begins with the birth and his/her consciousness develops as his/her awareness of the environment develops. In this context, the child begins to understand the environment. Exploration and learning of the environment at an intentionally designed spaces of kindergartens and primary schools are one of the first confrontations for a child’s formal education, but also for informal experiences as building up a game, spending free/leisure time through indoor-outdoor spaces of the school environment. The concept of free time, which constitutes the temporal framework of this study, allows the child to experience the elementary school space more independently than the lesson time. In these times, the child can re-create the space with the most important learning method which is play, as well as to discover and experience the space. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the child and space using the concepts of perception, experience and remembering through the internal and external interfaces of primary school spaces in the context of free time. Field studies performed at two differentiating primary schools in Istanbul, Turkey in terms of the way the spaces come together and space interface relations. Data related to remembering and use of the space were obtained through observations and cognitive mapping in free time of 109 first and second grade students in these schools. In this research, it is seen that there is a significant relationship between memory, behavior and play. The morphology of the space and the relationship between indoor-outdoor interfaces have an effect on this relationship. It is concluded that children not only reproduce the space with play but also learn and process this environment with plays by establishing a relationship with the space depending on the configuration of indoor-outdoor spaces in relation to each other.
Better places for learning at times of change: Contemporary design patterns for future schools
* Pedro Gonçalves, University of Campinas, Brazil
Benjamin Cleveland, University of Melbourne, Australia
Doris Kowaltowski, University of Campinas, Brazil
Changes in teaching and learning are demanding transformations of the physical school environment. A fresh and stimulating school architecture should support the contemporary practices, activities and behaviours of teachers and learners. Changes in educational settings require support from a design process based on research, evaluations of inhabitants’ experiences, debates, and reflections on what school architecture has come before and what may be more desirable into the future. This paper presents research on evidence-based design, related to middle schools. Through a systematic literature review and qualitative field research, a set of new architectural design patterns is offered to support the programming debates associated with school design processes – helping to advance existing school design patterns found in the literature. The research examines how the principle inhabitants of schools (teachers and students) learn through their engagements with the built environment. The new knowledge collected and organized is intended to support the design of school facilities with scientific information (evidence), translated into clear and insightful graphical language in the form of design patterns. Architectural programming methods and the processes of visually expressing underlying design principles in the form of diagrams are explored. Graphic representation of concepts is interrogated through procedures include organizing perception, directing sight, reducing realism, making the abstract concrete and the complex clear, and putting emotion into visual images – and in doing so attempt to express design concepts for human-needs more effectively. We present a series of school design patterns to configure learning spaces of the future. These should stimulate the design of school buildings appropriate to diverse contexts, supporting problem-solving, solution explorations, and the validation of design proposals. The research is part of a continuous investigation by the authors on design methods for school architecture.