|Tuesday, June 23|
Independence and autonomy are two essential psychosocial processes that characterize the individuals mastering of spatial mobility and related territories. Different crucial moments of the life course appear fundamental in this respect: childhood, adolescence, active life, retirement, or old age. Other events, less predictable, may also interfere with the process of autonomy by influencing freedom of choice or even mobility accessibility: relocation of employment, residential mobility, family breakdown or health problems. Thus, daily mobility behaviours are subject to changes that may be both short-term (e.g. changes in schedules or itineraries, changes in the destination, etc.) or long-term, particularly following biographical events (e.g. birth of a child, divorce, or marriage). In long-term perspective, covered by the concept of "mobility biographies", there are few studies that discuss impacts on ordinary daily mobility behaviours related to these mobility biographies, especially in their intensity and predictability. On the one hand, research dedicated to daily mobility and related to biographical transitions are growing. On the other hand, research related to biographical bifurcations is often confined to situations dealing with inequalities or with key moments in the life course, such as aging or family life. In this context, this symposium aims to bring together theoretical, methodological, and empirical perspectives on the evolution and changes of mobility behaviours according to two main notions in current research: "transitions" and "bifurcations" that households and individuals are living.
* Sébastien Lord, Université de Montréal, Canada
Metropolitan mobility options vs mobility identity: How much households' mobility choices are self-determined?
* Sébastien Lord, University of Montréal, Canada
Gerber Philippe, Luxembourg Instutute of Socio-Economic Research, Luxembourg
Daily mobility is a common problem that fits into the complexity of everyday household life. Mobility is also a dimension of identity, a predisposition which in a way gives a specific framework for dealing with activities and travels. Then, households’ choices are made with a wide range of rational elements (economic, time, accessibility, etc.), but also more sensible factors (preferences, past experiences, satisfaction, etc.). In addition, these person-related factors as well as environmental stresses tend to change over time and life-course position. Large-scale urban projects often aim to improve modal shifts and to facilitate both households’ commutes and daily life. Poles of employment generate the main flows of urban travel, those flows should be at the core of strategic planning. Beyond possibilities for improving mobility, replacing workplaces in metropolitan territory can both limit and create socio-spatial inequalities. This paper proposes to focus of an exceptional case of workplace relocation (2015) – McGill University Health Center in Montréal – and explore the daily commutes changes for more than 10,000 metropolitan workers. This move was presented a priori as administrative decision, then motivated by finding better overall urban accessibility. However, metropolitan accessibility is sharply contrasted, especially in the context where former employment sites (n=5) were located in city-center. What mobility choices have made metropolitan employees in order to rebuild their travel routines? What is the importance of both mobility habits and identities in commute changes and households’ satisfaction? Using internet survey (n=1977) conducted with the concerned workers, their mobility strategies have been explored. Logistic regression models putted into perspective mobility changes according to mobility identities and workers’ socioeconomic characteristics. Beyond the importance of accessibility, attitudes towards mobility have strong explanation power for specific workers profiles. Past mobility patterns is a key-variable in understanding adaptation. These variables should be better embraced by transportation plans.
When children upgrade to middle school: small transition or major change in their autonomy?
* Sandrine Depeau, UMR ESO CNRS/ University of Rennes, France
Sonia Chardonnel, UMR PACTE CNRS/University Grenoble, France
Kamila Tabaka, UMR PACTE CNRS/University Grenoble, France
Eva Moffat, Paris Nanterre University, France
Sylvestre Duroudier, UMR PACTE CNRS/University Grenoble, France
Boris Mericskay, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
Isabelle André-Poyaud , UMR PACTE CNRS/University Grenoble, France
Arnaud Lepetit, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
Nicolas Pelletier, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
For more than fifteen years, the use of public spaces by children have been changed. Their travel autonomy declined dramatically and leaded to an increased sedentary lifestyle. While these evolutions are classically highlighted from cross-sectional studies (Hillman, 1997) or intergenerational studies (Gaster, 1991; Bhasale & al., 2017), the more scarce longitudinal approach allows to depict certain transition. Especially the so-called "normative transition" (Bronfenbrenner, 1986) transforms relationships in space, time and social network of children (xxx, 2005). Therefore, the MOBIKIDS research program aims at describing this transition from elementary to middle school (in France) as a crucial turning-point in relationships of children and families to daily time and space. This communication will focus on two major issues. How does school transition transform certain parents and children relationships with space and time? And consequently how these new relationships are lived within families and are changing the autonomy of children? Data collection carried out using an integrated device (MK MOBIBACK) mixing GPS dataloggers (monitoring 5 days of tracks) and a complementary survey on tablet. This last one aims at enriching GPS data (mainly places and trips) and questioning children’s socialization, autonomy, free-times and family attitudes about their child’s independence. Among all families (n=88) interviewed in Rennes (n= 43) and a in a municipality of its urban periphery (n=45), we will focus on participants (children and one of their parents) surveyed in both phases in 5th and 6th grades (n = 62). Results show how a change at the macro level of time can have an impact at the micro level. Particularly, aiming on a multidimensional definition of children’s autonomy, it will be possible to observe how modes of travel and accompaniment evolve, what the most visited places are and how is shifting the ability of children to deal with unexpected situation during travel.
(In)security, public space, and youth: analyzing urban design strategies near university campuses in Mexico
* Ramón Reyes Rodríguez, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
Torres Juan, Université de Montréal, Canada
Eliazar Reyes Rodríguez, Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico
In Latin America, 70% of people report having suffered violence (Latinobarómetro, 2016-2017), often in the public space and, more precisely, in streets. Not surprisingly, fear is a strong feeling that permeates the daily experience of place: in Mexico, according to INEGI (2019), 74,6% of the population (18 years old and more) consider their city as an insecure place for living. This perception of insecurity is even higher among women (79,3%). Traditionally confined to active transportation and public transit, children and youth face this insecurity during their daily travels to and from educational activities (schools, colleges, universities). This issue is very present near university campuses, in areas where transformations require a close collaboration between universities and municipal authorities. How is (in)security shaping the experience of urban environments around university campuses among the youth? How can urban design transform this experience in the next years? This presentation addresses the issue of (in)security as a factor of autonomy and independence in the daily mobility of the youth. It draws on recent initiatives to transform the vicinity of education facilities in Guadalajara, Mexico. The presentation reports on the University of Guadalajara’s urban design strategy, focusing on its context (spatial, social and political) and expected/observed outcomes. Furthermore, the aim is to reflect on the way urban design strategies can be promoted by universities in contemporary metropolitan settings. If “crime is one of the symptoms of failures in urban development policies (…)”(UN-Habitat 2009), this presentation will foster reflection about the important role universities can play in creating safe cities.
Relationships to time and space in a context of urban change: some findings from space-time of action analysis in Bogotá (1993-2009)
* Florent Demoraes, UMR ESO - Université Rennes 2, France
Vincent Gouëset, UMR ESO - Université Rennes 2, France
Taking its inspiration from space-time prism formalized in time-geography (Hägerstrand, 1970) and spatial analysis, the purpose of this study is to examine mid-term changes to household members access to place of activity, against the backdrop of urban change. To this end, the analytical framework uses the concept of space-time of action (Demoraes et al., 2018) referring to the combination of all the places of work or study that individuals go to, and the time taken to reach them. The analysis is based on two surveys conducted in Bogotá (Colombia) in 1993 and 2009, devised in the wake of work by the GRAB research initiative (Ined), to apprehend individuals spatial mobilities from a biographical perspective. Two groups at different stages in the life course are more specifically looked at: coresident schoolchildren and working adults. First, space-times of action are calculated and mapped using kernel outer rings for the two groups and the nine survey zones at the two dates. Second, the statistical significance of the discrepancies between space-times of action is assessed using a bivariate colocation test, hitherto used primarily in spatial epidemiology (Souris, Bichaud, 2011). The test indicates an overall stability in childrens access to school place and a more contrasting situation for adults.
* Sandrine Depeau, UMR ESO CNRS/ University of Rennes, France