|Tuesday, June 23|
Experimental Study on Passengers Sign Detection Tendency in Railroad Station
* Zongchao Gu, Dalian University of Technology, China
Ryuzo Ohno, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Wei Lu, Dalian University of Technology, China
HAI BI, Dalian University of Technology, China
In large station connecting several metro lines, signage plays important roles in providing information and guiding passengers to their destination. There are large amount of signs existing in the transit routes which makes passengers difficult to find their destination information. This study focuses on the tendency of passengers detecting signage in motion. In the previous research, a sign detection experiment is conducted in an actual station to clarify the global tendency of sign detectability in the spatial region around a pedestrian. To study the visual perception tendency of passengers in way-finding, we conducted another sign detection experiment in a virtual space that constructed according to the actual station. In virtual reality experiment, we simulated passengers’ sign detection process through Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Through eye-tracking camera, we collected the motion traces of participants’ gazing points and clarify two typical eye movement patterns. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain passengers’ sign detection tendency in railroad station. First, we analyse the 3-dimensional visible region from the points along the experimental routes. The occluding edges where visual information appears/disappears in participants’ view field are obtained. In view of their eye movement data, we proved that passengers pay more attention to appearing information. Second, we make several comparing groups to examine graphical information’s influence in way-finding. The different staying of participants’ gazing point also proved that recognized sign information significantly affects passengers’ sign detection tendency in subsequent routes.
Connecting a steering wheel to our data dashboard: using big data to answer plain-language questions about urban sustainability
* Ty Tuff, McGill University, Canada
Kevin Manaugh, McGill University, Canada
David Wachsmuth, McGill University, Canada
Andrew Gonzalez, McGill University, Canada
In nations with advanced economies, 76% of adults carry a smartphone with a digital assistant that can answer plain-language questions about the world around them. It is easy to ask for “directions to the best food” or for “a list of movie times”, but these assistants are currently incapable of answering any plain-language sustainability questions like “where does my energy come from?” or “does my neighbor have the same access to sustainability that I do?”. This is a place where we can leverage the assets and institutions of academia, like working groups and classes, to produce new content that commercial groups cannot. For questions that can be answered with existing data, we are visualizing and contextualizing these data to be relevant to people at all scales of decision making. For questions about future impacts of decisions, we are developing parametric design software that allows anyone to see future sustainability impacts for the design decision they make. We use a technique called piping to funnel large quantities of data into simple answers for the end-user, usually presented in the form of ranked choices that the user could make. This condensation of information is primarily achieved through the development and implementation of code modules. A single module takes a series of inputs, does a task, and produces a series of outputs. We can link these modules in parallel and/or in sequence to produce a vast combination of different outputs. Individuals and working groups create these modules to complement each other, but each module gets individual authorship and their own page to show off the functionality of that module. As our flagship effort, we are designing module arrangements to target two specific existing questions: “how do we create more green space?” and “how can we make sustainability more equitable?”.
Affective maps: an active and participative method for research and intervention in environmental psychology
* Zulmira Áurea Cruz Bomfim, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Brazil
Andersson de Castro Lima, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Brazil
This workshop aims to present the methodology of affective maps as an intervention tool in Environmental Psychology. This is intended to promote the learning of participative and active methodologies for environmental imageability construction of the city, which has been approached as a form of knowledge and guidance in urban spaces based on the work of Kevin Lynch. The affective map stems from this intention by also adding the aspect of meaning to the construction of the symbolism of space. The affective map is defined as the articulation of senses moved by affections about a specific place and arises from the idea that feelings and emotions, as well as cognition, promote behaviors in relation to the places and people who share it. The construction of affective maps is based on data collected by the Affective Map Generator Questionnaire, that includes words, drawings, metaphors and Likert scales as a way to reach affective aspects of the person-environment relationship. The participant is expected to be able to apply the presented methodology in various scenarios. The workshop is aimed at students, professors and researchers from areas that address environmental and psychosocial issues with a transdisciplinary approach, as well as social public policy workers interested in the relationship between affectivity and urban space. The questionnaire will be presented from theoretical categories of Environmental Psychology and Social Psychology, as well as practical aspects of applying the methodology, specifically data collection. Audiovisual resources such as slides and music will be used to expose the syllabus and material for experimentation of the methodology. like colored pens, crayons, pencils, paper utilized for drawing. This methodology’ s presentation can be an interest to the event and to the attendees, as it brings the participative, affective and educational dimensions of the awareness process to urgent engagement to face the environmental issues that threaten life on the planet.
Differences in eye movements while viewing urban images and images of trees in diverse vegetation periods
* Marek Franek, University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Jan Petruzalek, University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Denis Sefara, University of Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
The positive effect of viewing nature on cognitive function is explained in terms of perceptual fluency in the processing of nature scenes based on their fractal structure. The present study analyzed eye movements in viewing natural and urban scenes. Previous investigations found lower eye movement activity in viewing natural scenes compared to urban scenes. The objective of the present study was to analyze differences in eye movements while viewing deciduous trees pictures in two vegetation periods - with foliage and without foliage. It was presumed that vegetation without foliage has a lower level of fractal complexity, which may result in differences in eye movements. Forty undergraduates participated in the study. They viewed photographs of trees with foliage, the identical trees without foliage, and urban houses. Eye movements were recorded using a Tobii X2-60 eye tracker. The results revealed a significantly lower mean number of fixations in viewing trees compared to urban scenes. Moreover, the results revealed a significantly lower mean number of fixations in viewing trees with foliage compared to trees without foliage. The analysis of fractal complexity showed that trees with foliage had significantly higher fractal dimensions than trees scenes without foliage and urban scenes. A lower number of fixations means a lower cognitive effort in processing visual information. Thus, the data showed a lower cognitive effort while observing natural scenes vs. urban scenes, as well as an association between eye movements and the fractal complexity of presented images. A higher fractal complexity was linked with lower eye movement activity. However, it is not entirely clear how the different visual complexity of vegetation with and without foliage can contribute to perceptual fluency in visual processing.