|Tuesday, June 23|
In several countries, the stock of schools is being renovated or in need of it, several decades after a massive building of educational institutions due to the generalization and the lengthening of schooling and to the baby boom. The aging of the buildings itself entails the necessity of this work. In parallel, many societal changes put pressure on the uses of those buildings and on their purposes : the apparition of new society orientations such as the reduction of the environmental footprint, the encouragement of healthy lifestyle habits or the existence of closer ties with communities; new uses of school spaces, especially with changes in education, in education curriculum, in the socialization of young people, and the addition of support functions; then more global the evolution of technologies and the variable place of digital technology in the transmission of culture. On the other hand, on the institutional level, pedagogical approaches, whether they are old or more recent, can divert the intended uses planned by the designers of school spaces, whereas the plurality of the purposes and uses of the same spaces can generate tensions between the users. When there are school renovations, how can we create places to accommodate human relations, as well as school and social transformations characterizing the relations between generations? How can concerns for culture and the environment be considered? What kind of architectural approaches are proposed to take into account those changes? The main goal of our symposium is to compare the challenges met by school renovation in different countries, as well as the renovation programs and collaborative approaches put forward to address not only immediate needs but those needs of future generations.
* Carole Després, École d'architecture, Université Laval, Canada
Schools and communities: Temporal cycles of socio-educational policy and built environment entanglements
* Benjamin Cleveland, University of Melbourne, Australia
Philippa Chandler, University of Melbourne, Australia
Ian McShane, RMIT University, Australia
The notion that schools should have stronger relationships with their communities has been promoted by governments, educators, health service providers and community developers in North America, Europe and Australia over past decades. In Australia, this policy cycle has been recurring since the 1930s with bursts of concentrated research and policy activity every few decades. To inform current aspirations for the operation of ‘schools as community hubs’, this paper presents historical insights into the relationships between schools and their communities, paying particular attention to entanglements (Ingold, 2008) with the built environment. Advocates have leveraged the discourse of school-community partnerships to pursue a variety of objectives. These have included; improving the range and quality of support services to students, families and communities; strengthening relationships between school administrations, community partners and the public; maximizing the use of public infrastructure; and reducing the costs of operating facilities for schools and government (Dryfoos 1994; Pelletier & Corter, 2005). Despite this cyclical interest in schools as community hubs, the literature on school infrastructure has predominantly focused on the design of facilities for teaching and learning, with limited attention paid to the role of buildings in relation to schools’ interactions with the wider community (author, date). Based on a review of literature from disciplines including urban planning, architecture, education, community health and policy studies, this paper identifies a timeline of school-community development, highlighting where, when and why intersections between socio-educational policy and the built environment have emerged in the areas under review. These findings are expected to assist contemporary governments (national to local) as they rethink how schools engage with their local communities and urban surrounds, informing a recent ‘community turn’ (author, date) in public policy.
A Picture is Worth 1,000 words: Website Images of Classrooms and Perceptions of the Institution
* Ann Devlin, Connecticut College, United States
Alaina Anderson, Connecticut College, United States
Sarah Hession-Kunz, Connecticut College, United States
Amy Zou, Connecticut College, United States
When classroom facilities are out of date, students complain (Habaci et al., 2012). But before students arrive on campus, what do they know about classrooms where they will study? Media has changed how people acquire information; websites are second only to college tours in influencing prospective students (Langmead, 2013); further, photographs impact website design (Kolowich, 2019). This research examined whether photographed classrooms can influence judgments not only of classroom variables, but reach beyond to judgments of the institution itself. Further, can rank of the institution compensate for a dilapidated classroom? In this 2 x 2 between-subjects experiment, participants read a scenario about a college too far away to visit, viewing a website picture described as a first-year seminar room (unrenovated or renovated) at the college, on measures of satisfaction with the classroom and college academic life more broadly (e.g., student retention). Institutional rank (top 50 in US News and World Report), mentioned or not, was the 2nd variable. Participants were 300 AmazonMTurk workers, 237 of whom passed manipulation checks and were retained in analyses. The classroom furnishings questions comprised a scale (10 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .879), as did the questions dealing with perceptions of the institution (9 items, Cronbach’s alpha = .897). Analyses revealed a significant main effect for renovation status, for both the furnishings scale (p < .001) and perceptions of the institution (p < .001) but not for rank, which approached significance (p = .052), with a top 50 mention viewed more positively for the institutional measure. For renovation status, the newer classroom was viewed more positively for both scales. Classroom status also significantly influenced estimates of first-year student retention, for renovation status (p <.001) and for rank (p = .027), with higher estimates of retention for the renovated classroom and when rank was mentioned.
ODTT : Open Data for Territories and Teaching: New Spaces for Learning
* Laurent Jeannin, CY Cergy Paris Université, France
What are the relationships between the ecological characteristics of school and university learning spaces and the well-being, quality of learning, pupil and student performance and the professionalization of the educational team? The term 'learning environment' generally refers to the social and didactic environment, i.e. comprising a set of material, e-material and human resources rather than the physical learning environment or space (Cleveland, 2009). A growing body of research, outside the field of education, demonstrates the importance of taking this so-called physical environment into account in educational contexts (Beare 2000; Buckley et al. 2005; Clarke 2001; Cleveland 2011; Edwards and Clarke 2002; Fisher 2004; Hartnell-Young 2006; Heppell et al. 2004; Higgins et al. 2005; Lackney 1999; Lippman 2007; Monahan 2005; Newton and Fisher 2009; Upitis 2010; Stevenson 2007; Taylor 2009; Wall et al. 2008; Weinstein 1979). Our work (Jeannin et al, 2017) shows that studies of the characteristics of the class-like environment on well-being and learning are historically and predominantly univariate. It is only very recently and only in the English-language literature that mutivariate approaches have appeared, also addressing the question of other learning spaces (Cleveland and Fisher, 2014; Barrett et al, 2015; Lange, 2015; Imms et al, 2017; Barrett et al, 2019). The paper aims to present the matrix of variables taken into account within the international observatory of educational spaces led by the French research chair Transition2 , whose objective is to construct statistical heuristics in order to study potential correlations. It will also present the first work on the analysis of correlation between school performance and the functional characteristics of educational spaces.
Education, Time and Architecture: milestones and discourses of the Portuguese context
* Alexandra Alegre, CITUA - Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Over time, school building embodies pedagogical and social practices; regulates movements, behaviours and conducts; shaping ways of school organization identified by Tyack and Cuban as the “basic grammar of schooling” which "has remained remarkably stable over the decades”(1). In the same line of thought, we can identify an “architectural grammar of schooling”, a design code to arrange and divide school space towards a pedagogical practice that is observed in distinctive geographies and persisted over time, making school buildings easily recognizable among other public institutions. Artefacts and aligned desks in classrooms distributed along corridors, halls and school grounds are part of the school vocabulary, which has remained almost the same since the second half of the 19th century, with the creation of public educational systems and the establishment of public school in most developed countries. Since then educational discourses and practices have been tested and implemented in different times, but not always been accompanied by an architectural shift towards a new school space paradigm. Or vice-versa. Except for some examples, it seems that education and architecture are running in different times where experimental pedagogical practices don’t find any expression in the obsolescence of school space organization and design, or innovative architectural models are one step forward of more traditional educational discourses. This paper aims at exploring this time convergence/divergence in the Portuguese educational and architectural background, invoking school spaces from and for different times (renovated or not), discussing them in current time realities, and questioning the need of facing the aging of architectural educational typologies with educational challenges, not forgetting social, environmental, digital, historical and cultural concerns and interests. (1) David Tyack and Larry Cuban, Tinkering toward Utopia. A Century of Public School Reform (Cambridge Mass, Harvard University Press, 1995), 85.
Understanding the primary school systems organization and goals with the aim of a renovation: the case of Quebec province
* Mélanie Bédard, Université de Montréal, Canada
Aurélie Étienne, Laval University, Canada
Laurianne Delisle-Côté, Université Laval, Canada
Yohan Gauthier-Jutras, Laval University, Canada
Sophie Loisel, Laval University, Canada
A majority of Quebec’s public primary schools are getting older and their use keep growing. In order to make sure the renovations of those establishments are in agreement with their users needs (CEREMA, 2006), the Schola project is asking 1036 employees from 195 schools about their appreciation of the buildings and the use they make of them. This survey relies on the findings about three types of transformations relating to school system. Those transformations change the use and the purpose of school spaces and thereby the pedagogical organization of the schools. 1) Variable modifications in pedagogical goals and teaching methods that are visible in the classroom layout. 2) Diversification of public schools mandate resulting in a work division amongst school employees (Tardif and Levasseur, 2010). 3) Diversification of schools’ educational projects and complementary services offer, based on students needs and perception of their capacities (Lessard, 2010), that intensify the inequalities between students (CSE, 2016, 2017). Finally, differentiation between schools is reflected in an uneven diversity of office spaces and the pressure to multiply their use. Therefore, an intense use of office spaces jeopardizes the achievement of a certain quality of use because of the variation in purpose and creates a tension between users coming from “different worlds” (Zoïa and Visier, 2016; Draelents and Dumay, 2011; Derouet, 2000). To understand the pedagogical organizations, this communication 1) shows how the layout of classes is different from the traditional school form (Vincent, 1994); 2) distinguishes, among the working conditions, those that are common from those who are specific to certain job categories or type of schools; 3) identifies the desirable spatial conditions of an egalitarian public school system aiming to achieve its mandate.
* Mélanie Bédard, Université de Montréal, Canada