|Tuesday, June 23|
To change or not to change: A mixed-method retrospective investigation of mobility responses to an involuntary workplace relocation
* Zahra Zarabi, University of Montreal, Canada
Sébastien Lord, University of Montreal, Canada
Encouraging people to adopt non-car transport habit has always been one of the principal targets of sustainable transport policies in urban areas. Luckily, research evidence has proved that the habit of car use is likely to be weakened during a life-changing event. According to the mobility biographies approach, individuals are more likely to change travel mode if they experience a context change, especially in their home or workplace. This paper aims to understand the barriers of changing commute mode during a workplace relocation (Montreal, Canada), and propose effective policies and measures that can guide mobility towards a more sustainable one. Using a retrospective mixed-method approach, 1977 (in the quantitative section) and 19 (in the qualitative section) employees who experienced an involuntary change of their workplace are examined vis-à-vis their travel-related changes and choices before and after the relocation. Whereas longitudinal studies often deliver more reliable datasets compared to retrospective methods, we benefit from the greater efficiency and effectiveness of data collection and analysis in the present approach. Considering that the time span between the event under investigation and the surveys was three years, we reassure that new travel habits and related residential decisions have been developed and established by our target population. Moreover, the repetitive nature and importance of travel behavior and its related decisions in everyday life enhance the respondents’ capacity to recall past behavior, thereby increase the reliability of responses to our retrospective questionnaires and interviews. Results from this study indicate that a context change can expose individuals to a novel situation vis-à-vis accessibility and services that cause travel-related values and attitudes to be changed over time. From a planning perspective, these change spans are highly valuable as they open up a “window of opportunity” for encouraging the use of sustainable transportation alternatives and for promoting environmental concerns.
Coastal flooding in time a look from two studies
* Alexandra Schleyer-Lindenmann, Aix-Marseille University, France
Séverin Guignard, Aix-Marseille University, France
Solveig Lelaurain, Aix-Marseille University, France
Samuel Robert, Aix-Marseille University, France
Raquel Bertoldo, Aix-Marseille University, France
We wish to shed light on the relation between time and risk through two studies from a large project which combines various research approaches in order to apprehend the representation and perception of coastal flooding in France. The relation between this risk and time will be analyzed on the level of the time of its emergence in the public eye (study 1) and at the individual, personal time level concerning its perception (study 2). Study 1: The use and meaning of the term “coastal flooding” is analyzed over time, from 2005 to 2018. This period includes the Xynthia storm, a major disaster on the French Atlantic coast (2010). How is this term constructed in public discourse? Has the storm an effect on its emergence? In a media analysis 260 French newspaper articles dating from 2005 to 2018 were content analyzed. Results show that depending on the time period (before or after Xynthia storm), the meaning of the risk and the associated terms change. Thus, this work shows how this new risk emerges in the French society over time. Study 2: A questionnaire survey currently underway of inhabitants in two Mediterranean coastal cities, measures psychosocial variables (eg. trust in authorities, and psycho-environmental elements (eg. place attachment) to predict coastal flooding risk perception. Time is integrated in relation to climate change perception, as well as to feeling of threat concerning coastal flooding in the present or in the future. Indeed, as coastal flooding is associated with climate change, uncertainty about climate change might place this risk in the far future, therefore hampering risk perception. By articulating these two studies, the communication will discuss how individual risk perception and time perspectives can be framed with the social construction of risk over time.
Post-disaster recovery in Japan: A study on changing household compositions and housing support system after cross-boundary relocation to Morioka city
* Shiori Suzawa, Tokyo University, Japan
Toshio Otsuki, Tokyo University, Japan
Mari Sotoyanagi, Morioka support center for refugees
Nobuyuki Arai, Tohoku institute of Technology, Japan
Saori Imoto, Nihon University, Japan
Migration becomes a widespread issue, particularly in Japan during a post-disaster period. After the Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami, some victims had relocated from the seaside to an inland area by border crossing to different municipalities and prefectures owing to the regulation changes of housing support. In future major disasters, this result is expected to reoccur due to the shortage of houses in disaster-affected area. Thus far, some rules and policies have not yet been established. Therefore, this study focuses on the cross-boundary relocation after the 2011 disaster and identifies changes of household composition and problems throughout the relocation process. A research was conducted, by using the data provided by the support center, to study one thousand cases of almost all households which relocated to an inland prefectural capital city of Morioka. Within the analysis phase, particular cases where household composition had undergone through changes were selected and classified into specific categories. The most common change is the division of one household into two by the separation between the elderly and the young members. They all lived in one house before the disaster, then, the elderly members migrated to an inland area for several reasons such as; to live closer to relatives and to conveniently access medical facilities, while young members remained in the affected area for their job. However, the extent of the current housing support system is dependent on the number of household just before disaster, therefore, during the time they live separately, normally, only one side of the household is able to receive housing support such as; provision of post-disaster public housing or financial support for a new house. The result indicates that there is a gap between reality and existing housing support system. To prepare for future disasters, the system is in need of revision.
Building an empirically grounded social simulation model in order to understand the temporal development of a whole-city heat network
Ruth Wilson, The James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
* Tony Craig, The James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Doug Salt, The James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Gary Polhill, The James Hutton Institute, United Kingdom
Many cities are looking to deploy community or district heating schemes for domestic space and water heating. Such systems are usually considerably more energy efficient, particularly at a certain level of urban density, and buildings connected to such systems usually experience a considerably reduction in fuel bills once connected. However, the cost of building the network itself is often extremely high, and sometimes part of this cost is passed on to households wanting to connect to the network. Using a real-world example of a developing whole-city heat network, we built our study around a single research question: “Under what economic, social and psychological conditions would the heating network develop fastest, with the maximum numbers of households opting to join the network?” This is not a straightforward question, and traditionally would have been tackled using an engineering approach based on rather simplistic assumptions about human behaviour. This presentation will briefly describe the processes we went through to empirically ground a computer simulation model of the heat network development using a large-scale questionnaire. The questionnaire asked people about their social network, their financial situation, and their psychological values. These were used to empirically ground a virtual population of households in an agent-based-model. The presentation will discuss some of the initial findings of the model after being used to test several development scenarios. These findings will be used by the heat network developers, and the approach taken here demonstrates the utility of using questionnaires to inform computer-simulation models of urban development more broadly.