|Tuesday, June 23|
The drivers of pro-environmental behavior in Russia: A cross-regional analysis
* Alexandra Ivanova, Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation
Sautkina Elena, Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation
Russia is faced with many environmental issues. Environmental and climate change are increasingly objects of scientific research in Russia, and are a source of growing concern among the population. At the same time, the current state of environmental policy in Russia has been frequently judged inadequate to solve the many environmental issues that the country is facing (OECD, 2006; Uvarova, 2016). Unsurprisingly, as our previous research showed (Sautkina, 2019; Sautkina & Ivanova, 2019), the level of environmental culture, in particular, environmental norms, knowledge and pro-environmental behaviour is fairly low in Russia. In this study, one of the first in Russia to investigate the multiple determinants of pro-environmental behavior, we conduct a cross-regional analysis in the four parts of Russia: the two main cities, Moscow and Saint-Petersburg, and two provincial cities, Arkhangelsk and Tomsk. Preliminary results of an online survey (N=502) show that environmental norms, knowledge and values predict pro-environmental behavior. In terms of regional differences, in Moscow and St. Petersburg, personal environmental norms along with environmental knowledge are the main predictors of pro-environmental behaviours, while in the two provincial cities, only personal norms predict pro-environmental behavior. We anticipate that the study results will be of interest to practitioners who work to develop environmental behaviour change interventions.
Extending the Norm Activation Model to Explain Other-Managing Behaviors to Reduce Littering in the Community
* Sonny Rosenthal, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Kang Leng Ho, University of Zurich, Switzerland
More than 40 years ago, Schwartz developed the norm activation model, which has become one of the most cited frameworks explaining proenvironmental behaviors. Despite this success, it does not directly address when individuals will act to reduce other people’s harms. This study extends the model to explain such other-managing behaviors about neighborhood litter where, despite individual efforts to not litter, litter problems may persist due to other people littering. We consider two new explanatory factors. Community attachment reflects deep social bonds with other community members, which may make problems in the community more personal and affect anticipated negative emotion about a community problem. Those anticipated emotions can explain other-managing behaviors and mediate the effect of community attachment on those behaviors. We tested these relationships using data from a national door-to-door survey of 1,400 Singapore residents, with questionnaire items from prior research. To test our extension of the norm activation model, we compared a series of structural equation models, using difference in chi-square tests to select the best-fitting model. One portion of the analyses successfully replicated the norm activation model. Analysis of the extended model showed anticipated negative emotion was positively related to awareness of consequences (β = .15, p < .001) and community attachment (β = .39, p < .001), and positively predicted other-managing behaviors (β = .29, p < .001). In addition, personal norm mediated the relationship between community attachment and self-managing behaviors (β = .17, p < .001) and anticipated negative emotion mediated the relationship between community attachment and other-managing behaviors (β = .11, p < .001). These results suggest individuals can be motivated to address the environmental harms others have caused, and efforts to curb littering can leverage those motivations to create points of social influence.
Are 'Dragons of Inaction' at work in communities in India?
* Sarah Payne, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
Olufolahan Osunmuyiwa, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India
David Jenkins, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
Energy demand in India is rapidly growing, with electricity consumption in residential buildings expected to increase seven-fold during the period 2012 to 2032. As forty percent of the population in India will be urban by 2030, understanding growing residential energy use is important for managing demand and required distribution of energy supply. In addition, pro-environmental energy behaviour is necessary to support a sustainable growth in energy use, thus it is important to understand barriers to pro-environmental behaviours. In Europe and North America, cognitive and behavioural barriers have been summarised by Gifford as ‘Dragons of Inaction’; it is unknown if similar barriers exist in communities in India. As part of an international research project, this presentation explores the following subset of research questions; How do measures for Dragons of Inactions perform for communities in India?; How well do Dragons of Inaction align to measures of environmental concern?; and Do Dragons of Inaction relate to residential energy saving current actions and intentions to act? Using a case study community in southern India (n=125), and plans for replicating the work in north India, questionnaires have and will be conducted with residents about their energy use, pro-environmental energy behaviours and intentions, the Dragons of Inaction Psychological barrier instrument, and general environmental concern (myths of nature scale). Results (factor analysis, correlations and regression analysis) will indicate if similar psychological barriers to pro-environmental behaviours are at play in Asia as in North America and Western Europe. This has important consequences for future energy research in lower economically deprived countries where energy consumption is rapidly expanding. Through a greater understanding of barriers to pro-environmental energy behaviours, interventions can be designed and tailored to support the growth of positive behavioural shifts alongside the rapid change in energy access throughout India.
Can environmental self-identity diverge from individual values? Behavioural insights from residential Air Conditioning use in India
* Olufolahan Osunmuyiwa, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
Sarah Payne, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
David Jenkins, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom
Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi , India
The rise in cooling degree days (CDD), especially in emerging economies like India, has led to an increase in the demand for air conditioners (AC). The uptake of ACs would not only affect how existing electricity infrastructures are configured, but it would also impact future policies around cooling. To address the above, pro-environmental behaviour linked to energy efficiency actions are required. Environmental self-identity has been a predictor of pro-environmental intentions and behaviour around energy efficiency and is strongly associated with individuals’ values. But do people with strong environmental self-identity change their values when confronted with an increase in CDD? If yes, which factors influence this change and how does this affect their attitude towards saving energy? Conceptually, this study applies the literature on self-identity and a modified version of the Value–Belief-Norm (VBN) model to understand AC consumption behaviour in an environmentally conscious community in Tamil-Nadu India. Through in-person in-depth qualitative interviews with 20 residents, the study found that while people expressed strong environmental self-identity, preferences for AC use was often mediated by hedonic factors such as comfort and health. Moral norms and to a lesser extent altruistic values were found to have played a positive role in how people operated their ACs. Yet, when faced with the choice of using energy efficient ACs, biospheric concern was of limited importance while situational factors like cost and functionality were identified as more pivotal. Based on the above, it is evident that even in communities which identify as environmentally conscious, hedonic values can significantly hamper energy efficiency actions. Thus, for countries experiencing high CDD like India, hedonic preferences around ACs must be considered when designing cooling demand strategies as this is required if a behavioural shift is to be attained.