|Tuesday, June 23|
Toward the layout of seating areas for restoration from museum fatigue based on a behavioral observation survey
* Dukwoo Kim, University of Tokyo, Japan
Yurika Yokoyama, University of Tokyo, Japan
For the restoration from museum fatigue, Bitgood(2009) mentioned that the rest period and change of activity is important, and Guffey(2015) emphasized the importance of installing seating places. In museums, seating areas are installed, usually for restoration, in various places with different surrounding environments. According to attention restoration theory (Kaplan, 1995), spending time without directed attention seems to have the potential to restore mental function. Therefore, if the ratio of behaviors without directed attention were different depending on the surrounding environment of the seating areas, it would be possible to improve restorativeness of the seating areas by improving surrounding environments. We observed behaviors of 147 visitors sitting in 9 seating areas in museum-A, a typical art museum with about 190 western paintings on one-way exhibition, with the seating areas sparsely located with about 10 to 40 works between the areas. And, we classified intentional behaviors such as operating a smartphone and looking around etc., and the rest as behaviors without directed attention. Then, we calculated the percentage of behaviors without directed attention, and examined whether it varies depending on the surrounding environment of the seating areas: A) with the windows with natural view, B) in the center of the exhibition room, C) facing corridors. As a result, the average of the percentage was 25%. It suggests that we spend part of the time without directed attention while we sit on the bench after appreciation which may be helpful for restorativeness from mental fatigue. According to the surrounding environment of the seating, the average of the percentage was different (A: 35%, B: 26%, and C: 18%) (A-C: p**<0.01). It suggests that natural view has a relatively high possibility of restraining behaviors with directed attention. Also, objects such as artworks visible in environment B do not always attract attention of the viewer seated.
Indoor Vegetation and Airport Wait Time: Simulation Study on Benefits of Positive Distraction on Time Perception, Crowding, and Anxiety
Nicholas He, Cornell University , United States
* So-Yeon Yoon, Cornell University, United States
Growing evidence supports the benefits of nature and indoor vegetation, and spending time in natural environments has been shown to lower stress levels (Miyazaki, Ikei, & Song, 2014). Because stress is directly related to crowding, which has been a long-standing subject in environmental psychology, indoor vegetation can become a potential solution for environmental stress. TSA security checkpoints within airports are especially well-known for their stressful atmosphere and long queuing lines that negatively impact both passengers and employees. In addition, passengers may also feel stress when surrounded by strangers in their vicinity. As passengers’ negative experiences directly influence their future travel decisions, providing positive distractions with elements such as nature scenes, plants, trees, and living walls known to reduce stress and anxiety by involuntary attention will aid mental restoration. This study utilized realistic simulation using immersive virtual reality technology to investigate the effects of indoor vegetation and living walls on participants’ airport experiences. A total of 24 subjects participated in the experiment. Each participant was invited to the lab and asked to wear an Oculus Quest head mounted display with a 360-degree view representing a crowded airport environment. The high-fidelity virtual airport environments with animated avatars and sound effects were developed using Revit and Twinmotion (Unreal Game Engine). Participants were primed to think they were waiting in line at the crowded airport. Participant experiences were examined using self-reports and heart rate variability. Additionally, scales on cognitive processing styles and prior experience were administered to control the effects of viewer traits. Results include the analysis on participant stress levels based on heart rate variability, the relationship between indoor vegetation and participant comfort, the relationship between stress and crowding, and how different participants perceive virtual airport environments. Findings and implications on how designers can improve crowded environments will be presented.
Integrating Nature in Campus Settings through Biophilic Principles and Patterns
* Susana Alves, Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy
Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi, University of Northern Iowa, United States
Pia Nilsson, Independent Researcher, Sweden
Research in environmental psychology and other disciplines show that interaction with nature plays a vital role in promoting human health and well-being, especially for those most vulnerable to stress. In this paper we look at university campuses as important settings for nurturing student health and quality of life (QOL). Campuses address best ways to support the education and development of their students but there is also a growing need and responsibility to provide mental health counsel and services. What is the role of campus nature in this complex process of serving students’ holistic needs? What kinds of nature are desirable on a campus setting with student-specific quality of life in mind? Kellert’s (2005) biophilic design principles recommend strategies for direct and indirect contact with nature that provide a long-term perspective for enabling healthy and sustainable human-nature relationships. However, we know very little about how direct and indirect experiences of campus nature can benefit the health of students, educators and campus personnel. Despite growing research on biophilic design, scant information exists on how to integrate it within the design and management of campus settings. We aim at integrating Kellert’s biophilic principles with a review of existing design guidelines and findings from studies on the design and use of campus nature to explore how biophilic campus design can support student QOL. Our analysis is guided by the following criteria: (1) a definition of nature, health and student-specific QOL, (2) integrative interdisciplinary potential, and (3) applicability to campus settings. The paper contributes to a discussion of specific tangible ‘biophilic patterns’ (e.g., visual connection with nature) and environmental features, and intangible experiences (e.g., sense of belonging and connectedness) supported by them. This review seeks implications not only for current campus design adjustments but also for long-term integration of health-promoting campus nature interventions.
Positive Distractions with Biophilic Design in the ED Waiting Room: Empirical Study with Immersive VR Environments Using Self-Reports and Eye-Tracking
* Jisun Lee, Cornell University, United States
So-Yeon Yoon, Cornell University, United States
The objective of this study is to explore how Biophilic Design contributes to positive distraction on patient experience of the emergency department (ED) waiting area. High-fidelity virtual ED waiting areas were created and tested how subjects primed visiting the ED after a car accident using a video clip responded to different conditions of ED waiting areas: biophilic and conventional conditions. Biophilic design has been increasingly popular as a viable option for the quality of waiting experience. There is substantial evidence that positive distraction is effective in the patient’s medical experience in time perception during chemotherapy and burn pain control. The environment of ED was criticized for being uncomfortable, cold, frightening, oppressive, crowded, and in need of refurbishment (Stuart et al., 2003). This study assessed how the biophilic design affects differently in terms of personality traits of affection level towards nature and analytic verse holistic reasoning tendency. Twenty-eight participants were assigned to the virtually built ED waiting area developed with “high” or “low” biophilic design attributes for direct and indirect experiences of nature (Kellert, 2008). Each participant was invited to interact with the immersive virtual environment (VE) using HTC VIVE pro EYE head-mounted display with built-in eye-tracking features. Eye-tracking was adopted to investigate if viewers' individual differences in visual information processing possibly influenced their experience. Scales on perceived waiting time, perceived service quality, satisfaction, attitudes towards nature, analytic versus holistic reasoning were adopted from previous studies. In the presentation, the findings from the data analysis, including shorter perceived waiting time and a higher average score for anticipated service quality by the biophilic group and the effects of holistic verse analytic reasoning tendency, will be discussed. This study evidences that providing environmental attributes positively distract patients, and measuring the impacts will have direct implications for the patient experience.