|Tuesday, June 23|
There is global concern to find out alternative forms of mobility to mitigate the effects of climate change in cities. We know walking is important; it is recognized as a physical activity that contributes to health, initiates social encounters and recreation, and is part of the dynamic mechanism of social inclusion. However, few efforts are being made to include walkability in the design of cities as a way to mitigate the impact of climate change. To promote walkability as an alternative means of mobility, and to avoid the use of particular vehicles, it is essential to adjust urban design to the necessary conditions so that walkability can become a viable option, i.e. efficient as well as motivating and exciting for people. The general objective of the symposium is to reflect on walkability as an alternative means of sustainable urban mobility, particularly in times of climate change. It will examine studies that gather the historical, phenomenological, social and evaluative experience on how walkable cities used to be, as well as the experience gathered through technical indicators, psychometric instruments and qualitative approaches in the current times. Some concepts of environmental psychology will be developed, such as place appropriation, gender and spatiality, pro-environmental and socio-spatial behavior, and responsible urban behaviors. Finally, the symposium will discuss the indicators, psychometric instruments and qualitative protocols that are being used in the assessment of urban walkability.
* Pablo Páramo, UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA NACIONAL, Colombia
Walkability in latin american cities: Purposes pursued by its inhabitants and conditions that have make them walkable through time
* Pablo Páramo, UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA NACIONAL, Colombia
Andrea Burbano, UNIVERSIDAD COLEGIO MAYOR DE CUNDINAMARCA, Columbia
Urban managers and planners in Latin America have not paid attention to the importance of walking, the mobility of the motorcar and the bicycle has been privileged ignoring pedestrians. By preventing walking, the educational function of the city is truncated to learn about its history, the milestones that give its identity, the social diversity that characterize it, the possibility of coming into contact with other people and natural elements. From the experience as pedestrians are excluded children, the elderly and those who have sensory and motor difficulties to travel. Although there are several works that have explored cities walkability in literature, urban anthropology, psychology, and health sciences on urban walking, however, few have addressed this activity in Latin American cities through time. The main objective of the study to be socialized in IAPS Conference will be to show the main reasons that motivate people to walk and the spatial and social conditions that facilitate and inhibit it. Data were gathered with a questionnaire properly validated in all countries. The presentation will emphasize on the main results of the study highlighting the physical and social properties that 1300 participants identified as the most important barriers when walking along the streets and analyzing how the walking experience has evolved during the last centuries in Latin American cities. The presentation will address the importance of making possible the experience of apprehending the city walking, the purposes pursued by people when walking the streets, the experience acquired in the places through which they travel, and the spatial and social conditions that make possible walking in the city. Finally, the presentation will analyze the results of walking for urban planners and managers, and its value to mitigate climate change.
Walkability as historical, phenomenological and social experience. Approaches from Latin American cities
* Miguel-Angel Aguilar, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico
As walkability becomes a major issue in cities that are searching for new ways to move huge amounts of populatation without leaving a carbon footprint, its important to ask what means walking for the people living in urban areas . In this presentation we will explore the historical, phenomenological and social experience of walking in eight Latin American cities. The importance of walking in urban environments have been outlined by authors fom different social disciplines, such as Rebecca Sollnit, David Le Breton, Michel de Certeau. We want to identify the main trends in evaluating walking in diferent urban contexts by its citizens. In particular we focus on the purpose of walking, places and socio spatial conditions, corporality and fenomenological experiencies. A range of 18 to 24 qualitative interviews were made in each city. About results it can be said that regarding the purpose of walking the there is a distinction between the instrumental uses and the leisure ones. Walking is deeply interwoven with the social timing and spacing of activities, so the people walk within the social structuring of the city. The idea of the path prevail over the places, so what´s important is to be on the move, not to be in one particular place. Nevertheless, around path and place is the area. This means that peple likes to walk in certain sourroundings , mainly central urban areas, some of them have a heritage value. The awerness of urban crime and obstacles in the streets (cars in the sidewalk, holes) is something that makes walking an unplesant activity. Through the use of the senses happens the appropiation of uban neighborhoods, for some peoples every one of them has a specific trait.
Walkability survey and optimization design research of subway station and its catchment area in winter cities of China
* Yu Du, Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Jianfei Chen, Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Xian Ji, Harbin Institute of Technology, China
As a product of TOD concept, subway station and its catchment area should be a nice public space like a city living room, but this is not the case in China's winter cities. Compared with other cities, there are only a few people visit it a few times at a certain time. The main reason for these problems is the ignorance of the particularity (special region, special area and special behavior), so that no adaptable design was carried out. The aim of this paper is to establish an optimization design objective system based on the current walkability situation of subway station and its catchment area in winter cities of China. The research adopts a combination of qualitative research and quantitative research, and a combination of theoretical research and empirical research as mixed methods. The main contents are as follows: Firstly, based on hierarchy of needs theory, we use word frequency analysis and focus group discussions to get the specific evaluation index set of walkability. Secondly, we use questionnaire survey to get the pedestrian environment evaluation results. Thirdly, we use factor analysis to summarize and put forward the current problems, that is, less walking choices, more walking obstacles and poor walking protections. Combined with the analysis of objective construction, this paper abstracts three aspects of optimization design objectives, namely, optimizing the supply balance, strengthening the walking system and regulating the environmental stimulation. On this basis, the specific optimization design direction and content are discussed, which together constitute the optimization design objective system. This paper provides the basis for the future adaptable design, which is important for promoting the implementation of TOD in China's winter cities. Besides that, it can reduce carbon emissions with promoting physical activities, as well as realize the revitalization of the winter cities with promoting sustainable development.
Socio-psychological drivers of sustainable travel choices: first results of a multidisciplinary project in the city of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy)
* Ferdinando Fornara, University of Cagliari, Italy
Sara Manca, University of Cagliari, Italy
Oriana Mosca, University of Cagliari, Italy
Eleonora Sottile, University of Cagliari, Italy
italo Meloni, University of Cagliari, Italy
Nowadays, persuasive campaigns still hardly result in behaviour changes, and this happens also for the promotion of pro-environmental actions. In particular, vehicular emissions represent one the major causes of urban air pollution, thus it is important to identify the key drivers and barriers of sustainable travel choices. The current study is part of a larger research included in a locally funded multidisciplinary project targeting the metropolitan area of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy), aiming at the development of a mobile application that will be used also for sending tailored persuasive messages on the basis of our research results. This first study had the purpose to explore the role of socio-psychological factors expected to influence travel choices, such as social norms, emotions, values and attitudes. Specifically, we run a survey study where we manipulated - in a 3X2 between-subjects design - social norms (descriptive vs. injunctive vs. no norms) and anticipated emotions (positive vs. negative). Measured variables included values, place identity, implicit and explicit attitudes, local identity, involvement with the topic of sustainable transport, and intention to use sustainable transport. Participants (N=180; 61% women; mean age=37.38, SD=14.39) were residents in the broad area of the cities of Cagliari and Padua (Italy). Results of preliminary analyses show that both injunctive and descriptive norm conditions elicit a higher intention than the no-norms condition, whereas the expected effect of the anticipated negative (vs. positive) emotion did not emerge. In line with the literature on pro-environmental behaviours, we hypothesized a sequential chain of relationships between biospheric-altruistic values, attitudes, involvement and intention that is corroborated by our data. More in-depth data elaboration will be run and the overall results will be discussed in the light of both the theoretical framework and the general project.
Fostering acceptability of socially-innovative energy projects: fostering sustainable mobility through superblocks in Spain
* Adina Dumitru, University of A Coruña, Spain
Isabel Lema, University of A Coruña, Spain
Achieving transition to sustainable energy is considered a priority in Europe today. Socially innovative approaches to energy transitions are promising, as they have the potential to meaningfully engage citizens in adopting sustainable lifestyle choices and empower individuals and communities to mitigate climate change while also achieving other desirable social objectives. In order to foster the replication of successful social innovations, we need to understand what drives their adoption and diffusion, as well as what barriers are overcome in their implementation. The H2020 SMARTEES project, a consortium of European research institutes coordinated by NTNU, focuses on five types of socially innovative energy projects and studies, and studies the dynamics involved in the adoption of social innovations and their replication to different local contexts. This paper focuses on the transformation of mobility through superblocks, a social innovation fostering the introduction of low-carbon mobility practices through the reorganization of urban space into superblocks - car-free areas that are redesigned to foster social interaction and pedestrian use, successfully applied in the Spanish cities of Vitoria and Barcelona, and now copied in other global cities. Through 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews, we studied the factors and dynamics influencing the social acceptability of these projects. The outcomes of the qualitative research provide rich knowledge on the social dynamics that influence the course of social innovations, with a particular focus on those that foster or hinder social acceptability of these innovations, and citizen empowerment to both engage in social innovation processes as well as to adopt new behaviors. They also shed light on the social mechanisms of contestation, resistance and conflict, the circumstances under which they occur and how such contestation is resolved.
* Pablo Páramo, Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, Colombia