|Wednesday, June 24|
Using Time-In-Place to Manage Burnout and Engagement
* Sally Augustin, Design With Science, United States
Burnout and engagement ensue after time-in-employment and research indicates that environmental design, by influencing time-in-space experiences, has the potential to help beat employee burnout and encourage engagement. Maslach (2017) recommends that organizations battle burnout by focusing on employee “workload, control, reward, community, fairness, and values.” By addressing the six burnout predictors/risk factors identified by Maslach (2017), designers can make possible conditions inconsistent with burnout and supportive of engagement (for example, Al Horr, et al, 2016; Veitch, Stokkermans, and Newsham, 2013). Burnout is less likely when the design of the workplace supports appropriate workload and tasks-at-hand (Schwartz and Porath, 2014) and when employees have at-work opportunities for cognitive refreshment (Veitch, 2012). Multiple studies have identified specific conditions that support particular tasks/situations and can therefore make workload more comfortable (for example, Studente, et al., 2016). Having appropriate amounts of environmental control has been tied to lower levels of professional burnout (for example, Laurence, Fried, and Slowik, 2013). Workplaces can send nonverbal messages that support positive moods inconsistent with burnout (for example, CABE and the BCO, 2006), can signal that employment-related decisions and rewards are fair (for example, Visher, 2005), and convey organizational values (for example, Becker and Steele, 1995). Workplace design can support the positive development of employee communities, via, for example, spatial layout (Allen and Henn, 2007). Design can also encourage employee engagement (for example, Barnes, Wineman, and Adler, 2019). Nieuwenhuis, et al. (2014), for instance, tie the presence of green plants to greater levels of employee engagement. Workplace design recommendations, informed by scientific research, that support minimizing burnout and optimizing levels of employee engagement are synthesized into a model here that is practical for workplace designers/managers and human resource professionals to apply and which has been tested and refined in real world consulting assignments over several years.
The Multi-Site Expansion of Work at Home - In Search of Time Savings
Djaouidah Sehili, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France
* Tanguy Dufournet, Université Lumière Lyon 2, France
Alongside Leroy Merlin Sources, we have been studying, for the past 4 years, the multi-situated development of "Work at Home". As part of a global dynamic of changes in work, it raises new issues of sociability and affectivity in space and time. For our intervention, we would particularly like to focus on the relationship to time (Lefebvre, 2019). As a result of the use of new technologies and new methods of personnel management, the subordination of the worker no longer stops at the workplace but also extends to the home (Tremblay, 2001; Tremblay, Chevrier and Loreto, 2006). Within this framework, the physical and intellectual availability of individuals would no longer have temporal and spatial limits. Space and time are social products. This implies that rhythms (Claire Revol, 2014; Lefebvre, 2019) carry meaning. Short/fast or long/slow rhythms manifest themselves in repetitions and breaks, synchronicity and desynchrony. Rhythmics gives clues as to status, each figure having, according to its characteristics, its own rhythmics (Author, 2004). The analysis of daily life in relation to time in the use of housing and work thus reveals the diversity of relationships of domination (status, productive logic, etc.). In this sense, "Work at Home" can be a way to circumvent and fundamentally challenge the so-called traditional social rhythms of separation between work and private life, but also between the legal and the illegal, the local and the global, or between work and non-work. Thus, it questions public housing policies and the paradigm of understanding work. From 2015 to 2019, we conducted a longitudinal study combining phases of qualitative and quantitative surveys, and in situ observation including the use of drawing and video.
Workplace Environmental Quality and Its Impact on Workers Positive Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of an Innovative and Flexible Organizational Climate
* Simon Coulombe, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada
Sophie Meunier, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada
Patrick Voyer, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada
Most research in environmental and organizational psychology on workplace design has focused on its impacts on negative indicators of workers’ mental health (e.g., depression). However, wellbeing has long been recognized as more than the absence of mental disorders (World Health Organization, 1948), and more recently, positive psychology has emphasized the importance of positive wellbeing indicators (e.g., satisfaction, belonging, meaning; Keyes, 2005). Research is lacking on the influence of workplace design on positive wellbeing and the processes underlying this influence. This study aims to examine: 1) the associations between the perceived quality of the workplace’s physical setting and positive wellbeing indicators, and 2) if these associations are mediated by the impact of the physical setting on organizational climate. A sample of 107 workers from Québec, Canada, completed an online questionnaire including scales of: a) the perceived environmental quality of the workplace in terms of its support of six human needs, i.e., security, social contact, identity, instrumentality, pleasure, growth (Dreyer et al., 2018, Jutras, 2002; Steele, 1973); b) three indicators of wellbeing, i.e., positive mental health (Keyes, 2009), psychological wellbeing at work (Dagenais-Desmarais & Savoie, 2012), and social belonging at work (Burroughs & Eby, 1998); and c) perceived innovation and flexibility of the organizational climate (Patterson et al., 2005). Mediated regressions were conducted using the SPSS PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2013). Higher perceived environmental quality was associated with an organizational climate deemed more innovative and flexible, in turn associated with higher scores on all wellbeing indicators. The study suggests that designers and architects should consider a comprehensive array of human needs in order to create conditions in which workers can thrive personally, professionally and socially. Adding to the business case for the importance of person-centered design, the findings also highlight how wellbeing-promoting physical design may set the context for an innovation-focused organizational climate.
Relation to time and space in a host environment: building a home as a student or mobile professional
* Jaufret Barrot, Hors-pistes architectures, France
Lopez Yoann, Leroy Merlin Source, France
Henrio Terangi, Soliha Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France
Bois Jacques, Pardi Design, France
Our modern organization of higher education and employment opportunities are conditioning the flow of people and changing the way we define “home.” Students, seasonal workers, apprentices, interns, and even some full-time workers live in a temporary homestead. How do they occupy their temporary living space and how do they integrate into temporary host territory? Is there a new category of “home” that we could define as an intermittent housing? We will present the survey methodology used (Kaufmann’s comprehensive interview), namely the realization of about thirty interviews. By performing 5 immersions in situ, we were able to identify the spaces and to inventory the objects present to describe the observed uses. We have documented these different situations in order to better understand the relationship between people and their temporary home. We will communicate the main results using concrete examples that illustrate the three profiles we have defined during our research. Our research results highlighted the selection criteria for selecting an intermittent housing which remain relative according to each individual’s past. Our analysis of the interviews was based on a grid of analysis built on the four aspects revealing anthropological meanings of “home” developed by Élodie Jouve and Pascale Pichon (2015). This includes the concepts of interior organization, appropriation, attachment and anchoring. Time plays a quintessential role in People-Environment relationship. It reveals how people have to learn to be adaptable. Our research suggests that the length of the occupancy period will define the above-mentioned concepts. ICT impact movement patterns, lifestyle choices, and therefore, the person-environment relationship. The dynamics of place-appropriation were also highlighted during our research. The manner in which people relate to a temporary dwelling has an overall impact on their well-being, shaping society as a whole.