|Wednesday, June 24|
Conservation Consideration on Old Asian Alleyways in Japanese and Chinese Residents and Its Relationships to Environmental Appraisals
* Jinqi LI, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Yurika Yokoyama, The University of Tokyo, Japan
There have been many architectural planning / environmental psychology researches on ‘Roji’ (alleyways in Tokyo, Japan) and ‘Lilong’ (alleyways in the southeast Yangtze River area, China) that appreciated them from professional viewpoints (for example, see Suzuki et al, 1984). However, there seems to have been no one on the comparison of these two based on investigation on both Japanese and Chinese residents. Neither on how Japanese and Chinese consider the conservation of these rapidly disappearing old Asian alleyways. In this paper, 10 photos of Japanese ‘Roji’ and 10 of Chinese ‘Lilong’ are used to be valued in 7 points scales of following dimensions: 1) identification (nationality & how much it identifies as ‘Roji’ /‘Lilong’); 2) environmental appraisals (nostalgic feeling & good/bad atmosphere); 3) value for future conservation. We examine four hypotheses: for both Japanese and Chinese residents, 1) They can clearly tell out the nationality of the alleyway views. 2) There is common understanding of the words ‘Roji’ and ‘Lilong’, and characteristics of scenery similarities can be found. 3) They have similar environmental appraisals even for the other country’s alleyways. 4) They tend to conserve positively appraised alleyways. As a result, we found: both Japanese and Chinese can differentiate alleyways nationality (p**<0.01), however, there is no significant differences between identification scores of ‘Roji/Lilong’ for Japanese and Chinese alleyways. Strong positive correlation is found between the atmosphere appraisal and conservation consideration (r=0.95 for Japanese, r=0.90 for Chinese), and Chinese tend to conserve ‘Lilong’ which they feel more nostalgia (p**<0.01). We hope this research can enhance comprehension and conservation of Asian old alleyways from an international viewpoint, which are disappearing in recent city developments.
The Role of Placemaking in Sustainable Town Development from the Viewpoint of Environment Behavior Study
* Shuang Yan Ishii, Miyagi Gakuin Women's University, Japan
In Japan, the decreasing birthrate and aging population present a serious problem. In response, public care services utilizing nursing-care insurance have been developed to combat these problems. Moreover, to build a sustainable social system, the formation of local communities that support seniors living at home is needed. This study applies the methodology of environmental behavior study to clarify the structure of multiple network care systems, which consists of formal (public care insurance) care services and informal support provided by local residents in their daily lives. This paper also seeks to understand how the interactions of various elements that support seniors in need of care at home interact. In addition, we examine sustainable town developments by focusing on placemaking (provide a comfortable place just to be), that oversees the care of seniors. The survey was conducted in the port town of Tomonoura on Seto Island Sea. This town has a rapidly aging population with many seniors living alone. In the preliminary survey, questionnaire was used to determine how seniors are living in Tomonoura with low dependence on public care services. In main survey, we documented the lifestyles of eight seniors living alone (seven of who were diagnosed with dementia) and conducted interviews. The aforementioned survey showed that there are many seniors who continue living in their communities while using home care services and residential services such as group-living for the elderly people with dementia without being dependent on large-scale care facilities, and that there is local community care. The survey also revealed that functional elements alone were insufficient to support seniors living at home, indicating the importance of emotional elements. Among support based on functional elements, the care service bases and staff of residential care facilities such as group homes provide twenty-four-hour services and oversee the care of seniors as members of the local community, in addition to public services. As for emotional elements, placemaking which consisting of providing familiar people and landscapes from around the town, having a protective relationship with friends who spend time in outdoors and allowing seniors to remain involved with local communities through placemaking, were listed as characteristics. As such, the existence of placemaking, where the local community protects seniors while playing its functional role and working as a place of emotional support, is a factor that leads to the establishment of local community care. The network care system that creates a care network in Tomonoura is a base for public care services and is composed of staff of care facilities as members of local communities and key persons, such as local residents, who are always present in placemaking, while also providing places to stay outdoors.
(Market-)Placemaking amidst transformations: the case of the shell craftsmen communities in Shakhari Bazar in old Dhaka, Bangladesh
* Zahedus Sadat, DORPAN, Bangladesh
* Bidita Jawher Tithi, DORPAN, Bangladesh
Shakhari Bazar, a street located in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh is one of the first streets built in South Asia and has been a marketplace since the Mughal period. This street is the home of generations of shell craftsmen who make shell bangles (locally called shakha). This street has become an iconic symbol of ‘old’ Dhaka and a link to its rich history. However, in the last thirty years, the community of craftsmen involved in this market have faced a number of ‘fast’ and challenging transformations. One of the main challenges is the divide in the community with regards to how to maintain this site sustainably. Other challenges involve changing regional policies regarding import of shells; changing socio-political situations that have led to some craftsmen moving away to other regions; changing aesthetics, new technologies and the rising competition from alternate hubs that produce the shell bangles. This research investigates how the everyday practices of (market)placemaking of the people of the community cope with the uncertainty and anxiety and make sense of their positions in the current world. This paper will cover three topics. First, using Walter Benjamin’s Arcade Project as inspiration, this research, which aligns with other studies of spatial and cultural transformations, is an analysis of how people navigate the street in the midst of these transformations. Second, this research uses the fluid inquiry method, a spatial inquiry method, to examine how the community understand the challenges they face as ‘near’ and ‘far’ in spatio-temporal aspects and the strategies that they are adapting to the challenges. Third, this research looks at how these challenges of living and working in Shakhari Bazar are understood differently across generations.
Representations of housing and people-environment relations: The case of touristification in Lisbon
* Susana Batel, Cis, University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
Maria Fernandes-Jesus, Cis, University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
Raquel Correia, University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal
Many capital cities worldwide have been the stage of touristification (Colomb & Novy, 2016), which has been defined as involving the replacement of existent residents and services by visitors and related services, often resulting in the expulsion and/or alienation of older, longer-term residents, and especially those from already disadvantaged groups (Left Hand Rotation, 2019; Mendes, 2018). This has often translated into housing crises (Novy & Colomb, 2017), which bring to the fore the conflict between different existent representations of housing and their differential power in re-creating and recomposing urban areas. However, people-environment studies and environmental psychology particularly, while focusing mainly on exploring the emotional and symbolic meanings of home and individual preferences for different residential environments (e.g., Sixsmith, 1986; Lindberg et al., 1992), have so far neglected more political dimensions of housing with clear relevance for people-environment studies, such as changes in representations of housing and the right to housing, as currently negotiated in tourist cities. This research aims to contribute to overcome that neglect. For that, we have focused on Lisbon, Portugal, a highly touristified southern European capital city. We have conducted a media analysis, with the final sample being composed of 167 articles collected from two printed national daily newspapers and one digital weekly Lisbon-focused newspaper. A discourse thematic analysis was conducted, which allowed us to identify the different representations of housing that are being proposed and negotiated in the Portuguese public sphere as well as to examine their socio-psychological, political and environmental consequences and correlates. The implications of these results for the redefinition of urban areas and policies in relation to tourism gentrification will be discussed, along with the relevance of this area of research for people-environment studies.