|Wednesday, June 24|
The environmental issues we face have been stated 40 years ago for some and even earlier for others. While technological developments have made it possible to meet some major challenges (the ozone depletion, for example), behavioural changes are slower and more difficult to implement. This last approach relies mainly on the accumulation of individual good practices to solve environmental problems. The preferred scale of analysis is the individual one, and it is resistance linked to habits, a lack of information or insufficient environmental concern that is investigated. Recently, it is also from social dimensions that environmental issues are being addressed. Historical science has contributed significantly to this perspective, and then explores the historical effects of economic models. The novelty is no longer limited to individual pro- or counter-environmental behaviours, but also to consider social relationships or social structures to understand and address environmental problems. Thus, environmental behaviour is much more a social practice than an individual conduct. To what extent can socio-cognitive representations of space participate in this new approach to environmental problems? To what extent do the representations of geographical space reflect both social practices, socialized evaluations and collective memories.
* Thierry Ramadier, Laboratoire SAGE, Université de Strasbourg, France
Individual spatial histories and collective memories in the construction of spatial representations of national borders: the case of Strasbourg
* Kevin Clementi, Laboratoire Sage, Université de Strasbourg, France
Thus far literature has investigated the link between the history of space relations and socio-spatial representations, both in the form (1) of the individual spatial experience (e.g. Felonneau, 1994), and (2) of the collective memory related to space (e.g. De Alba & Dargentas, 2015). In each case, we argue that this relationship with space is constructed by and into a social structure. 1. Individual, spatial experience is defined by the dimensions and structures of social capital and by social trajectories (see Bourdieu, 1979). In other words, individuals have different relationships with the same space based on their different social positions. 2. Collective memory of geographical space arises from the interaction between the individual spatial experience and the symbolic past related to a place. This process forms a shared body of knowledge within a society or social group (Halbwachs, 1925, 1941, 1950) which contributes to the meanings that individuals attribute to places that compose the space. As in the previous case (1), social position has an influence on the interaction between individuals and the collective memory. By focusing on the case of Strasbourg we will show that the socio-geographic object, namely the "state border", occupies a different place in the spatial representations of its inhabitants based on their social trajectory and their age. Social trajectory would influence the relationship with space in terms of spatial experience and collective memory, while age would focus its influence on the relationship with a socio-spatial object such as the border, which has changed significantly in recent years in Europe (Schengen Agreement). To conclude, we will discuss this structuring link between the individual and collective spatial history, highlighting that spatial representations must be considered in the study of socio-spatial legibility (Ramadier, 1997).
Social segregation of spatial representations explained by the evolution of social position (social trajectories)
* Pierre Dias, Laboratoire Espace, Université dAix Marseille, France
Can the unequal evolution of social relations explain relations with the urban space? To answer this question, we approach the spatial representations of the city from the paradigm of social representations. We seek to highlight the social construction over time of socio-cognitive schemata of individuals to verify the importance of identity issues in their relationship with the urban space. 681 agents from the University of Strasbourg are interviewed by questionnaire. It consists of a hierarchical evocation from the city "Strasbourg", of five Likert scales for reveal functional and/or evaluative dimension of representations, of an identification of places frequented and of a socio-demographic part. The realisation of an Ascending Hierarchical classification since the results of the hierarchical evocation provide us two groups of representation that oppose. A group with a representation base on areas (neighbourhoods) bearing an interest on place's function, and a representation base on points (places) bearing an interest on place's aspect. These groups are socially distinct by their social trajectory. In the same work institution and with the same social position of administrative staff, the group with a functional relationship to the city has an ascending trajectory and the group with a physical evaluation relationship has a stable trajectory. We conclude that the different relationship with urban space depends on the evolution of social relations over time. The first group reach a new social position and seeks to value his identity by his "new" practices in the city. The second inherit a used social position and tries to self-actualize his identity by a positive image of his city. In this context, the environmental policies, who not consider evolution of social comparison and identity valorisation over time, risk to reproduce and reinforce the social segregation in urban space and curb sustainable development.
Psychosocial memorialization stakes about an urban renovation project Intergroup links as place of relation to urban environment
* Adrien Francillon, Laboratoire GRePS, Université Lyon 2, France
Valérie Haas, GRePS (EA 4163), Université Lyon 2, France
In Lyon, in France, a new district is emerging through an urban planning of an industrial wasteland whose inhabitants were stigmatized for a long time due to socially depreciated activities. The planners aim to restore this image with ecological values and modern architecture, and to ease the tensions between social groups by maintaining some elements of the industrial built heritage. We put in perspective this largely biophysical and top-down conception by questioning the memorial psychosocial stakes using a psychosocial definition of the space, based on the social representation theory and Halbwachs'works on collective memory. By studying this area our ambition is to question how the institutional communication and the environmental transformations affect the identities, practices and representations of individuals, in relation with the social groups to which they belong. Among other methods, this on-going study uses the semi directive interview and cognitive maps on base maps with inhabitants (N=40). We choose inhabitants with different social positions, place of residence and living duration. First results show that individuals adjust, accommodate and generate their relation to the urban environment according to their social identities, their values, their symbolic references and their collective memories. Participants’ description of the new neighborhood refers to a socio-symbolic process: inhabitants’ mobilization of everyday knowledge (e.g., images about the city, group stereotypes, practices) is mostly based on the living environment (e.g., group dynamics). This result lead us to relativize the role of the material aspects of space in the inhabitants’ familiarization with their urban environment and confirms the relevance of a socio-spatial theory of space.
The social dimension of childrens spatial representation in urban contexts
Eva Moffat, Research Center on Organisations and Strategy (CEROS/Nanterre University), France
* Sandrine Depeau, UMR ESO CNRS/ University of Rennes, France
Anaïs Lebreton, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
Laurène Coëtmeur, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
Marc Chaillet, UMR ESO CNRS/University Rennes, France
While the process of representation covers many meaning, spatial representation is a fundamental process to understand children-environment relationships. It constituted a strong paradigm in the 1970s and 1980s where it commonly refers to the development of knowledge of space properties. However an ecological view of children development enabled to approach space as more than a physical support. It is considered as a context made of daily activities situations where time, space, social relationships (behavior-setting) and place evaluation are intertwined (White & Siegel, 1982). The study of the development of spatial representations cannot be free from the social dimension of relationships to space (Dias & Ramadier, 2015). Indeed, mental maps are directly linked to spatial behavior (orientation, preferences, etc.) and they are not isolated from social learning. The process of spatial representation of children is anchored in daily activities, and so in pre-existing language and social structures. This communication is aiming at describing and understanding the importance of places considered as socio-spatial meaningful situations/places (closed to behavior-settings) in spatial representations of children aged 9-12 years. The study investigated the position of the social dimension, particularly the normative dimension (associated to procedural process) in the cognitive structuration of space. Children aged 9-12 years were recruited by school and met in classrooms for some and at home for others. A series of children’s cognitive maps was produced about their daily space of action (n= 41) and school-home travel (n= 49) at different school levels and in various urban contexts. Based on a categorical and qualitative analysis of sketch map components and their meaning for children, a transversal discussion points out how the spatial representation as a figurative form (using verbal and iconographic languages) reveals the continuity of some part of child cultures over different periods, and the normative forms in their spatial cognition.
COMMUNITY AND PLACE ATTACHMENT: An interrogation by using the case of Suadiye, Kadiköy
* Hulya Turgut, Ozyegin University, Turkey
The city of Istanbul has gone through some enormous transformation, experience and globalization discourses since the 1980’s. The city’s time-space relation has been redefined along with many changes. It is precisely evident that the relationship between "the meaning of the home" and "place attachment" has pointed a lot of variability and diversity out in terms of human-environment relations. From this point of view, the paper will focus on people's moving implementations in Suadiye neighborhood, in order to scrutinize the people-environment relations under rapid changes, displacements, conflicts and its breaking points by taking place attachment notion as a key issue. Within the context of paper, attachment; between the individuals-society and a particular place, will be considered as the basic concept of establishing a close relationship with other people. In this context, the main purpose of the paper is to establish a conceptual framework based on research and literature on concepts of place attachment' and to present a socio-spatial analysis of the current urban transformation process. The research methods used in the study include the discovery of alternative interfaces that are achieved by examining different interpretations, interviews, mappings and documentation, by referencing to the main focus of the research. As a result; this paper aims to open the discussion on concepts such as “sense of belonging to a place", "place attachment", "memory" and "identity"in the scope of aformentioned transformations with specific questions under the context of research and case studies. In the period regarding domination of speed and mobility over social phenomena, "place and place attachment are no longer valid? “So the question is that ‘Are multiple / complex forms without spatial boundaries of attachment and hybrid identities valid ahead? Keywords: Community and Place Attachment, Identity, Home-house, Urban transformation
* Thierry Ramadier, Laboratoire SAGE, Université de Strasbourg, France