|Thursday, June 25|
How do people perceive urban change, and why does this matter? A qualitative investigation of sustainability initiatives in Montreal
* Marina Najjar, Team INTERACT, Canada
Julie Karmann, Team INTERACT, Canada
François Vanier, Team INTERACT, Canada
Callista Ottoni, Team INTERACT, Canada
Sébastien Lord, Team INTERACT, Canada
Meghan Winters, Team INTERACT, Canada
Daniel Fuller, Team INTERACT, Canada
Yan Kestens, Team INTERACT, Canada
Background. Cities increasingly recognize the need to invest in built environment transformations that promote positive health behaviours such as active transportation and social inclusion. Yet, we know very little about how the outcomes of these sustainability policies impact people on practical, physical, and emotional levels. To address this gap, we explore a diverse cross-section of individuals’ lived experiences of urban transformations related to the Montreal Sustainable Development Plan. We synthesize findings to (i) highlight commonalities and differences among individuals’ perceptions, and (ii) consider the negative and positive implications of these urban changes. Our work advances understandings of how city policies promote sustainability and impact health. Practically, this knowledge may better inform municipal approaches to encourage active transportation and social inclusion. Methods. October-December 2019, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 32 participants from The Interventions, Research, and Action in Cities Team (teaminteract.ca) Montreal cohort. Participants lived in diverse urban and suburban areas, and ranged low, middle, and high income status. We focused interviews on participants’ overall perceptions of the urban changes, and assessed the urban changes’ impact on their daily mobility, physical activity, social participation and well-being. Results. A variety of underlying factors contributed to participants’ positive or negative perceptions of urban changes. The type, time-frame and scale of intervention were all notable influences. Rapid and large-scale transformations were most often perceived as negative and hindered participants’ openness to change, while urban changes increasing the livelihood of the neighborhood where generally perceived as positive. Conclusion. Our findings are useful for urban planners and health researchers to (i) consider what factors impede or promote the acceptance of urban interventions that encourage sustainability; (ii) provide nuanced insights of individuals’ experiences that compliment large-scale quantitative health intervention research with in-depth understanding.
Investigation on the Residents Daily Activity after the Construction of Metro Station
* Wei Lu, Dalian University of Technology, China
In China, many metro stations have been constructed in the developed residential areas to satisfy the large trip demands. Due to land use limitation, most of stations are built without service functions (e. g. convenient shop and café). We called this kind of development by “Implantation mode”. It is thought that the residents’ daily activity and trip patterns would be changed, because the railway transit provides new options for commuting, shopping and recreating. Whether the existing facilities in the community still the demands of residents with the new trip pattern comes into concern. This study selected residential area with 1.5km from a new built metro station as the study area. An investigation has been conducted to clarify the influence of new-built metro station to residents’ daily life. First, we make questionnaire survey to residents in study area to collect their individual attributes and facility demand. Next, we adopt daily activity dairy survey to collect residents’ trip information (e. g. trip purpose, travel pattern, travel time and destination) in a weekday and a weekend. We also make a field survey to obtain the data (e. g. position, type and area/floor) of existing residential, public service and commercial facilities in study area. Based on these data, residents’ time-space paths are recreated through the GIS tools. It is found that metro station will not immediately change residents’ trip pattern at the beginning. Through the analysis of time-space path, different types of activity chains have been categorized. Owning car, income are proved to affect residents’ commuting travel mode. Commercial & dining facilities are considered as influential factors of residents’ activity region. We would conduct continuous investigation to study the mutually reinforcing effect between metro utilization and adaptive changing of commercial/service facilities in the future.
An innovative method of observing the people-time-environment relationship: reconnecting users between Old Montréal and the Old Port
* Priscilla Ananian, University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada
Ariane Perras, University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada
Mixed-land uses in historic precincts affect users’ co-presence in public spaces and how they are used at different times. This relationship between people, time and environment varies depending on many factors. Special events versus everyday life, daytime versus nighttime, weekdays and weekends, and throughout the changing seasons. These variations imply that we must think about urban planning differently taking time into account. However, urban design methods for public spaces have been failing to support these variations, generating conflicts between users. This paper aims to present an experimental observation method to track users’ activities in public spaces. Our case study is located in the historical heart of Old Montréal and the Old Port. The method involves mapping 16 one-hour observation sessions of this public space (summer 2019) taking into account the varying intensity of users according to all time-related factors and criteria of quality of public spaces. Key findings are: 1. Users adapt and deal with their co-presence in this public space avoiding explicit conflicts of use, regardless of their category such as resident, tourist, worker, homeless person. 2. Users tend to adapt their uses of public spaces especially when it is crowded, for example standing on the bike lane, taking pictures on the railway tracks, sitting on the bollards. This is an interesting finding as it questions de role of this space for a future project of urban design. It means that even though the main role of this space is to ensure the pedestrian flow by their behavior, people also claim this space for recreation. Operationalizing observation of the public life could be useful to take variations of uses of public spaces through time avoiding conflicts and mitigating negative externalities of urban development.
Considering sustainability as a collaborative as well as individual behaviour: The case of energy saving in the UK and Mexico
* Caroline Leygue, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico
Alexa Spence, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Patricia Ortega Andeane, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico
Promoting pro-environmental behaviour is a priority for many organisations and policymakers, however most of the research and existing campaigns have focused on individual behaviours. In three studies, we consider also collaborative sustainable behaviours, that is, pro-environmental behaviours performed in conjunction with one or more other people but not necessarily performed at the same time or within the same space. In a first qualitative study (N = 133), we examined perceived benefits and barriers to individual and collaborative pro-environmental behaviour. If collaborative actions are less common, benefits include increased understanding, collective efficacy and stronger social relationships. Barriers include a lack of cooperation and motivation from others, differing beliefs of others and the potential for disagreements. Study 2 and 3 were conducted in the UK and Mexico and focused on energy saving. We examined how motivations differ between individual and collaborative behaviours, and how they are affected by environmental events (e.g. flooding, power cuts). Study 2 (UK, N = 1543), showed that motivations for collaborative behaviour differed to individual behaviour and highlighted the importance of reputational concerns. We also found that power cut experiences were related to greater concern about climate change and energy security and, in turn, differences in concern were related to greater collaborative energy saving behaviour intentions and lower individual energy saving intentions. Study 3 (Mexico, N = 661) also found that collaborative (but not individual) energy saving intentions were increased by experiences of power cuts or flooding. We conclude that campaigns should specifically target collaborative energy saving actions because they may have bigger environmental and social impacts. Furthermore, shared adverse experiences may promote prosocial interactions around environmental issues, so these can be used as an opportunity to encourage sustainability.