|Thursday, June 25|
Research on the Methodology of Division for Free Address System in Open-Plan Workspace
* Yuki Munemasa, Waseda University, Japan
Yudai Honma, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Ayumi Mukai, The University of Tokyo, Japan
In this study, we propose a mathematical optimal model to derive theoretically the floor layout planning considering zonings in the office consisting of multiple departments. In formulating, we invoke a method using a mixed integer programming problem and derive the optimal layout that simultaneously satisfies the layout of multiple groups in zoning and the connection of groups belonging to different zoning. Recently, many companies have introduced free address systems to open plan office that do not specify individual seats. However, the problems with the system have been pointed out that it is difficult to communicate within the group, and communication between different departments. Therefore, in this study, we add a constraint to choose a seat only within a certain area for the system. In addition, we set up a fictitious inner wall that does not actually exist between departments, and formulate a mathematical optimization model that minimizes the total inner wall length. The reason for using the total inner wall length as the objective function is that if the area is the same, the shape close to a square is better organized and communication is easier. In that case, it is obvious that the perimeter of the area becomes shorter. As a floor layout condition setting, we give an irregularly shaped building and assume three departments A, B, and C included in it, and prepare two groups for each department; A1-A2, B1-B2, and C1-C2. Although it is assumed that the groups in each department are connected, the adjacency is also specified for groups that need to be connected in different departments. In a numerical analysis, we present an optimal solution that is different from the layout that would be selected in a general sense, and clarify the usefulness of the mathematical model.
Won't you be my neighbor? How workgroups choose spatially adjacent neighbors during office space planning
* Yaoyi Zhou, Human Ecology College, Cornell University, United States
Chiara Tagliaro, The Polytechnic University of Milan (Politecnico di Milano), Italy
Ying Hua, Human Ecology College, Cornell University, United States
As work is becoming increasingly collaborative, by working physically close to each other, employees better engage in teamwork and use time efficiently. For large organizations, asking the workgroup leaders to indicate spatial adjacency preference is a common practice. This information is used to construct the "bubble” diagrams that guide space planning. However, so far, it is not clear how the workgroups make the decision. In this paper, we argue that the organization’s formal structure and collaboration network can predict the workgroup’s choice of preferred neighbors. A better understanding of spatial adjacency will allow planners to increase the effectiveness of space planning and enables employees to better utilize time in collaboration. A large Italian company was investigated during the new office programming process. We surveyed a sample of 183 managers regarding questions about spatial adjacency preference and the workgroups that they mostly interact with. Our data enables us to discover three types of factors related to spatial adjacency choice: department affiliation, collaboration network, and workgroup’s prestige. We found statistical evidence in Quadratic Assignment Procedure analysis, which supports our three hypotheses: (1) workgroups in the same department would prefer to be collocated; (2) workgroups collaborate in work would prefer to be collocated; (3) workgroups would prefer to be spatially adjacent to units with higher prestige. Among the three factors, the collaboration network best predicts the space adjacency choice. It echoes with Pena et al.'s (1977) argument that space planners should research how groups function, rather than to the organizational chart which merely indicates pecking order while grouping the people. Existing studies that address preference in programming are mostly conducted at the individual level and neglect the relationships between groups. This study is among the first few to apply social network analysis methods to understand the nature of the space adjacency preference.
Outdoor office work - supporting urban green environments and health in working life
* Susanna Toivanen, Mälardalens Högskola, Sweden
This presentation examines "green office work", defined as doing parts of office work outdoors regularly, as a way to improve employee health and maintain urban green environments. In addition to leisure time, these environments are also important for work and recovery in today's boundaryless working life where several types of knowledge work may be performed regardless of time and space. As a consequence, less time is spent on recovery which in turn may increase the risk of exhaustion. In Sweden, mental and stress-related ill health is the main reason for sickness absence. Thus, preventive actions are needed and green office work is suggested as a potential one. A pilot project was conducted among office workers about attitudes towards outdoor office work. In April 2016, the first fixed outdoor office was launched in Sweden by a real estate company. The prototype titled WorkOUT was launched in a business park located in urban green environment. About 90 companies including 1.200 employees have access to WorkOUT. Before the launch, a digital survey was sent to key persons (n=120, 48 % response rate) at the companies with questions about outdoor office work. The focus was on whether they already perform office work outdoors, and if not, whether they would like to do so. Further, what kind of environments would they prefer for office work outdoors and what kind of infrastructure would they need to work comfortably outdoors. Nine percent report that they work outdoors regularly, and 54 % of those that don’t work outdoors reported they would like to do so. Regarding infrastructure, a majority would prefer WiFi, comfortable chairs, and shelter against sunlight and bad weather. The study is a first step in a scientific endeavor of outdoor office work and provided important information for on-going studies and for real estate companies.
Investigating Art + Design Incubators as Places of Co-creation
* Newton Dsouza, Florida International University, United States
Asha Kutty, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, United States
Current demands for places of collaboration have generated a variety of new place types facilitating the free exchange of ideas, learning of new skills, and innovation. Art+ Design incubators are one such place type designed to facilitate a cross-pollination of artists, designers and entrepreneurs. We will investigate such an Art + Design Incubators as place for co-creation. Given the importance of co-creation in today’s workplace and learning environments, the study of these incubators will have deeper implications to evolving workplaces of tomorrow. By mapping the creative process as a sequence of events in time, we will analyze spatial and functional affordances. While we are not looking for causal connections between the creative events and space being used, we will explore potential correlations between the two. The research design is a mixed method technique using “experiential sampling” and “activity mapping.” The experience sampling method involves asking participants to report on their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and environment on multiple occasions over time. Using a mobile app called Moviesens, at specific moments participants are asked questions about their interaction within the incubator. Additionally, activity mapping technique is used to identify location and movement of participants and their interior space usage. Sensors are used to detect and track activities automatically and non-intrusively. The two datasets are synchronized to check potential correlations and analyzed through a behavioral assessment software. The project includes a collaborative advisory committee involving director of the incubator, industry experts, community partners on innovative workplace design, and the architect of the space. The final paper outlines design guidelines for Art+Design incubators and the extent to which they facilitate or disrupt co-creation including implementation of these guidelines into the existing space.