|Thursday, June 25|
How topographic features of coastal regions influence residents' risk perception and tsunami evacuation behavior
* Teruyuki Isagawa, Tokyo City University, Japan
Ryuzo Ohno, Tokyo Insitute of Technology, Japan
Yurika Yokoyama, University of Tokyo, Japan
Although tsunami evacuation is the instantaneous event in an emergency, diverse connections between people and environment from normal times are important to take appropriate behavior. Our previous study (2018) suggested that evacuation implementation in the event of tsunami was influenced by cognition of the terrain around their home. Since the study was conducted at only one region, Onjuku, which is located on lowland at the area of alluvial fan, the present study discusses the influence by comparing with another area, Enoura, which faces the ria coasts. Questionnaire surveys were conducted in both areas to ask the residents about cognitive distance from the sea, cognition of the altitude, risk perception and evacuation behavior. Valid answers, 281 in Onjuku and 180 in Enoura were analyzed by using GIS software. An evident relationship was found between the actual altitude of their homes and the tsunami evacuation implementation in both areas. This trend was also observed for perceptions of tsunami inundation risks. However, there was some discrepancy between the cognition of terrain and the actual one. Some respondents who answered “at a high enough altitude” as the reasons for not evacuating often believed the altitude of their home higher than actual height, and this tendency was more evident among the residents of Onjuku who lived far from the sea. In Onjuku, most respondents who answered “far enough from the sea” were lived in 500m or more from the sea, while all the respondents who answered the same in Enoura were less than 300m from the sea. It suggests that altitude of their homes or spatial depth of the village influences residents’ cognitive distance from the sea. Therefore, it is important to consider the interplay between horizontal distance perception and vertical one for developing better evacuation planning and risk communication in coastal regions.
When is climate change concern more likely to enhance support for climate change mitigation policies? A cross-national study
* Wouter Poortinga, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Lorraine Whitrmarsh, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Paul Haggar, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
The successful implementation of policies needed to mitigate climate change is contingent upon the public support they have. But while climate change concern is rising in many countries, little is known about when this concern leads to support for climate change policies. In this study we use data from Round 8 of the European Social Survey (ESS8; n=44,387), which included a module on public attitudes to climate change and energy. We bring together psychological and socio-political variables to examine how national context influences the relationship between attitudes and policy support. Results show that individual political beliefs and country-level indicators of better governance enhance climate change policy support from individuals who are concerned about climate change. Specifically, we show that positive political efficacy beliefs and living in a country that is more affluent, income-equal and perceived to be less corrupt all strengthen the link between climate concern and support for mitigation policies, in particular fossil-fuel taxes. We further demonstrate that political trust plays an important role in climate policy support. Our results suggest that public concern about climate change in itself is not sufficient condition for policy support, and that confidence in politics and governance is needed to win for the successful implementation of national climate change policies.
Social capital and community effects on mental health resilience to sea level rise (SLR) risk in Norfolk, VA
Jenny Roe, University of Virginia, United States
* Chris Neale, University of Virginia, United States
Our research builds off the City of Norfolk (VA) Vision 2100 report, developed from community engagement, and presenting a long term strategy to address and cope with challenges brought about by sea level rise (SLR) in the area. In the report, regions of the city are classified into one of four zoned groups (green, red, purple and yellow) to indicate flood risk and present/future asset levels. Of interest to this study are the red zone (high flood risk, high asset level) and the yellow zone (high flood risk, low asset level). First, at a local level, our study aims to identify areas of convergence and divergence between community assessments of risk and built environment (BE) assets and the expert evaluations. Second, our study aims to identify what types of actions (if any) residents are taking to adapt to SLR risk and if these actions are supporting individual mental health. Third, we will explore how perceptions of social capital supports health and wellbeing in areas of SLR risk, and, fourth, how perceptions of - and use of - local green space may help buffer the stress of living with SLR threat. Our study explores how demographic (e.g. race, income, age, gender, housing tenure) and individual variables (e.g. political affiliation, prior experience of flooding) modify these outcomes. Results for this study are pending, but – drawing on a small sample (n=60) - our study will provide a basis for understanding the psychological impact of SLR risk in two at-risk communities, and by exploring how community and built environment capital can support mental health. We conclude by discussing how such information can be used to inform future design strategies for SLR.
Link international trade with mangrove ecosystem through macro-scale approach: a spatial econometric analysis
* Mimi Gong, Michigan State University, United States
Yimin Yang, Renmin University, China
Although environmental impacts such as mangrove deforestation are happening locally, the forces to shape local decisions and conservation policies are increasingly global. Therefore, to achieve the sustainability goal of meeting food security requirements and maintaining natural resources requires an understanding of how interactions among distant and local forces shape local landscapes. This study aims to investigate how the global market is interacting with local mangrove coupled human-nature systems (CHANS) and to quantity CHANS flows across multiple geographic spaces and their synergies and feedbacks. We applied the IPAT/STIRPAT model to perform a panel analysis of data from a broad group of countries to quantify socio-economic drivers of local mangrove habitat loss from five stressors: population, economic activities, technology, government effectiveness, and geographic information. We find that consumers’ expenditures embodied through international trade activities from nearby countries are a statistically significant driver of mangrove deforestation over the 2000-2017 period. In addition, government effectiveness has negative impacts on mangrove loss over time: on average, increase of one percent of government effectiveness increase contributes to 0.124 (p<0.05) decrease of mangrove loss in a country. These results provide robust explanations for mangrove loss on a global scale and can serve as a starting point for a more sophisticated investigation on how consumptions are enhancing mangrove loss and what factors drive the variation in mangrove loss among countries.