|Thursday, June 25|
The Transition of Nakagin Capsule Tower -One of the Earliest One-Room Mansions in Japan-
* Yuta Osaki, The University of Tokyo, Japan
In this research, the transition of the Nakagin Capsule Tower, which was built in 1972, is studied from the perspective of architectural planning. This building was designed by Kisyo Kurokawa and is known as a masterpiece from Metabolism movement that had an enormous influence on architects around the globe in the 1970s. However, the background of the birth of the building and the situation after the construction as one of the earliest 'one-room mansions' is not well known. By analysing the history of the building in details, this paper gives a new understanding of the transformation of housing for single people. The real estate property registration, real estate magazines and articles from newspapers and magazines are reviewed. Also, interviews with a designer and stakeholders relevant to the building are conducted. The transition is explained from three aspects; utilisation, ownership and management. This building was designed as a 'business mansion' in the first place, which was meant to be used as a second housing or a small office in central Tokyo. In 2015, however, only a quoter is used as accommodation and a quoter as an office, and the rest is not used daily due to the deterioration. The purpose of first owners is mostly to use the capsule by themselves. As the new form of 'one-room mansions,' which are called 'lease mansions' emerged, the purpose of the ownership of the building can have transformed into an investment, which is supported the increased number of trades of capsules calculated from the real estate property registration. The developer was responsible for the management of the building but the maintenance was not enough. Despite the owners decided to resume management society in 1995, conscious about the decay of the building, major repairs have not done since then accelerating the decay.
Protection and adaptive renewal of historical sports architecture the case of modern gymnasium in China
* Lu Yaoxing, South China University of Technology, China
Since the emergence of modern sports in the 19th century, modern sports buildings have developed rapidly and accumulated a large number of outstanding historical sports buildings. Due to their outdated and run-down actuality, they cannot meet the requirements of city development and new events, and many regions in the world have witnessed a large-scale“demolition”and abandonment of historical sports buildings in urban renewal. It leads to a lot of waste of resources and the lack of urban cultural environment. In order to extend the life cycle of historical sports buildings and protect the cultural heritage of sports buildings, the research took the protection and adaptive renewal of modern Chinese gyms as an example; it investigated their historical data, renovation history, and utilization; it examined the value and importance of historical sports buildings in terms of resource utilization, environmental protection and cultural heritage. Results include expounding the relationship between the cause of renovation and the models of renovation. Above all, the research sets up possible ways and measures of protection and adaptive-reuse for modern sports buildings and several proposals on practice for further considerations are put forward. The conclusion shows the possibility of sustainable development of historical sports buildings in the process of responding to rapid environmental and cultural changes.
Revisiting Indeterminacy of Space in Domestic Architecture
* Heba Sarhan, Northumbria University, United Kingdom
Rosie Parnell, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
This paper revisits the concept of indeterminacy of space by exploring the architectural qualities which support diverse domestic practices. The concept of indeterminacy of space is addressed here as a critical aspect for identifying possibilities of regenerating existing dwellings. Drawing upon criticism of the ‘emptiness’ of space in the modernists’ approach to flexibility (Norberg-Schultz, 1987, Hertzberger, 2014), this paper places experiential dimensions of architectural space at the centre of the process of place (re)making. Taking the Tyneside flats in Newcastle as a case study, a participatory approach is taken to explore the spatial qualities which supported the residents’ attempts to transform these flats from a Victorian to a contemporary family dwelling. Multimodal data collection methods were followed during all stages of the fieldwork in order to examine both physical and sensory architectural qualities in domestic architecture. Findings demonstrate dynamics of the spatial structure of the dwelling through the interrelation of architectural elements, objects and subjects integrated within different events. Considering such multidimensionality of architectural space, this study contributes to the understanding of spatial indeterminacy by addressing domestic architecture through the totality of its lived spaces. Findings also suggest that an understanding of transformative architectural qualities requires consideration of both the physical and sensory qualities. Seeing the interrelation between such qualities, extends our understanding of possibilities of space use according to users’ interpretations, during different domestic practices.
Toward a Trajective Relationship with the Environment: Beyond the Culture-Nature Dualism
* Shabnam Rahbar, University of Montreal, Canada
The question of the meaning of our relationship with the environment has taken on a new significance since the latter part of the 20th century. The scientific advances and phenomenological reflections made during these decades have introduced an ontological link between humans and their environment as well as the notion that the environment is not a separate reality but inherent to humans’ existence. It follows that any interventions on Earth must be, to be justifiable, based on these findings. In this presentation, we will examine the meaning of planning practices in the light of this new knowledge: What is the act of building when the environment is neither neutral nor objectal but is rather a dimension of humanity? To this end, this paper draws on different sources of theory in answering the question of the relationship between humans and the environment, among them Augustin Berque’s concepts of the “medial body” and Paul Shepard’s “relational self.” It also analyzes exemplary cases that are constructed in terms of their relationship to the environment. Moreover, it engages in the oscillation between theory and practice in evaluating the extent to which scientific knowledge can guide development projects in adopting sustainable approaches. Finally, given its epistemological nature, this paper also offers a new framework (two planning principles) for interpreting projects, based on the concepts mentioned, and sheds new light on urban and environmental issues of the 21st century. It also contributes to the discussion of the rewarding relationship between planning practices and other fields of knowledge and disciplines, by showing how these disciplines can make a significant contribution to practice and by delineating how they advance our conceptualization and knowledge of sustainable planning.
Whos Afraid of Time in Architecture? Who is Not?
* Karen Franck, New Jersey Institute of Technology, United States
In 1982 the philosopher Karsten Harries published an essay in the Yale University journal Perspecta with the provocative title “Building and the Terror of Time.” In the essay he claims that a powerful fear of the passing of time drives the making of buildings from the very humblest, archetypal shelter on. And so architecture is a coping strategy, a defense against mortality. Harries makes no distinctions or qualifications. This terror, as described in the essay, is an unavoidable and a universal human condition, extending across all cultures, social groups, and time periods. Despite these questionable assumptions, reading the essay can generate useful questions. How does an attitude toward time, possibly a “terror” but not necessarily that particular attitude, shape the making, the valuing and the preserving of the built environment? How does that attitude vary across time periods and cultures? This paper will propose a few answers to these questions, first giving attention to: the western cultural tradition in architecture starting with Alberti who held that a building’s perfection is tied to its immutability and then to the modernist period which prized what is “timeless” -- actually an impossible condition of being outside of time altogether. The paper will then look to recent approaches in historic preservation that seek not to return a structure completely to a single point in the past but where restoration includes thoughtful interventions to meet contemporary needs. The paper will conclude with the recent attention being given to kinetic architecture, to buildings, particularly facades that are designed to change – with to light and weather conditions. Several of the main ideas and examples in the paper will be taken from articles published in the 2016 issue of Architectural Design entitled Architecture Timed.