|Thursday, June 25|
Upgrading as a matter of time and place: living labs for social housing
* Doris Kowaltowski, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil
Ariovaldo Granja, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil
Vanessa Gomes da Silva, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil
Regina Ruschel, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil
Daniel de Carvalho Moreira, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil
Sigrun Kabisch, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany
Clarine van Oel, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Jelle Koolwijk, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Arno Freeke, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Patricia Fazenda, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Michail Kagioglou, University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
This contribution presents a joint, long-term research proposal on upgrading of social housing (SH), for feedback on procedures and original inputs. The sizeable SH stock around the world needs upgrading over time to correct technical problems, attend to new construction and sustainability standards, improve comfort conditions of users, alleviate context-related questions, and reduce social costs. Ways of living and family structures also change over the years with impacts on residential design. Retrofit and refurbishment discuss a wide range of issues to improve conditions of SH projects, while specific upgrading programs focus on resident’s wellbeing and quality of life as well as sustainability aspects. Upgrading programs need cautious planning and engagement of users. Benefits must be made manifest, and gentrification and increased social polarization avoided. Upgrading is seen here as an opportunity to intervene, through innovation, to engage stakeholders (users, construction and real estate companies, housing associations and government agencies, planning and design professionals, NGOs, and politicians) to indicate priorities, specific for different contexts. We adopt the concept of Living Labs (LLs) to identify user-valued innovations and validate solutions for SH upgrading programs. Various Boundary Objects (BOs) are developed to overcome participatory process dilemmas. Transnational case studies in four different contexts, Brazil, Germany, Holland, and the UK, will reflect on similarities and contextual differences. Specific procedures and tools, such as games, value assessment dynamics, augmented, and virtual reality (AR, VR) and Building Information Modelling (BIM), are tested. Social innovation procedures need assessment to gauge the resolution of conflicting views of problems and needs, achieve project collaboration, and stimulate value-adding results. An essential research question is whether specifically enriched LLs, through various BOs, enhance decision-making in SH upgrading programs. And, importantly, the study aims to identify social cost indicators to reduce tensions, and risk perceptions in SH, with relation to user-valued innovations.
Dynamics and persistence: the trajectory of large housing estates illustrated by a 40 year long-term case study
* Sigrun Kabisch, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany
Large housing estates are planned environments, not naturally grown over centuries such as many parts of European cities. In Europe, after WW II, the immense housing shortage called for mass housing construction which was carried out by industrial panel housing construction. The blocks offered good living conditions, but mass housing was connected with a homogeneous appearance. During the last six decades, these housing ensembles experienced a changing history. Very acknowledged during the first period of their existence in the 1960/70s they lost attractiveness because of lack of vivid urbanity. Well-trained residents moved out and people with lower income moved in. Many housing estates altered to social housing neighborhoods, in particular in Western Europe. In contrast, large housing estates in Eastern Europe remained housing districts accepted by residents of different income groups until the end of the 1980s. The fundamental political change in the early 1990s in Eastern Europe including East Germany influenced the image of large housing estates profoundly. Due to the fact that industrial housing construction was the main type of housing construction which shaped strongly the cityscape and neglected the historical building stock, these large estates became symbol of the state-led socialist ideology. For this reason, many residents left these estates and found alternatives in suburban areas or other regions which offered alternative housing conditions and jobs. Findings from a unique long-term study over 40 years in the large housing estate Leipzig-Grünau, East-Germany, will illustrate how societal transformations in consequence of German reunification affect the built development of the estate and residents’ perception. Comparing the results from eleven surveys, a wave-like pattern of housing satisfaction becomes visible. The time-dependent, respective context conditions influence the perception of the living conditions in this setting and determine the trajectory of large housing estates.
Installation as a project Ownership and solidarity to ward off the worrying future
* Audrey Courbebaisse, Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Toulouse, France
Daniel Pinson, MMSH CNRS Aix-Marseille Université, France
Sombre predictions about the impact of global warming, acceleration and the headlong rush in a world that is constantly changing, bringing with it growing inequalities, housing could well be the refuge that tempers the world's wanderers, the anchor and den that ward off precariousness. To inhabit is to settle down in the long term. Living is essentially linked to time, a relationship that extends to all ages of life. Living is synonymous with permanence and change and leaves its traces on mother earth. We have observed, in fact, how many inhabitants, whoever they may be, settle down over time through the development, appropriation and sometimes invention of their own homes.Being proactive with innovative solutions which are open proposals of improvement and creativity, defining the bond that unites them and/or isolates them from an ambient environment. These improvements are reflected in the layout, transformation of furniture, decoration, installation of personal objects, colours and textiles, along with virtuous interventions as in the direction of the energy transition and the amelioration of sound and thermal comfort. The facilities extend into the common areas, for example interior and exterior with shared gardens, composts, coffee shops or restaurants and grocery stores. As a result these inhabiting initiatives weave a network of new forms of solidarity that take precedence over crime, making it possible to strengthen good neighbourly relations and cultivate values that are becoming rarer in our societies, by sharing and transmission, with economy through recycling and of mutualisation. The above mentioned being relevant and potential keys to improving man's relationship with his environment and to increasing his security. This is why we propose, based on our ethno-architectural research work on housing developments,with reflexive feedback over time, on the mark that this installation makes on society and its durability on all spatial levels.