|Friday, June 26|
Sustainable Living Space Based on Lifecycle and Open Building Theory: Lessons from Shanghai
* Manlin Wu, Tongji University, China
Jingmin Zhou, Tongji University, China
With the development of China's society, the demand for housing is constantly changing, but the reality is that the unchangeable spatial pattern has limited people's choices for space. Therefore, it’s essential to explore new theories and technologies based on the consideration of lifecycle demand, which will improve the flexibility of the space, establish an adaptive relationship between people and space-environment, and meet the needs of sustainable urban development. Taking a residential area in Shanghai as an example, this paper conducts the research utilizing over 100 questionnaires and interviews. The survey found that residents have different demands in various stages of the lifecycle. Specifically, the young people value the personalization and flexibility of the space, while middle-aged people value the space configuration related to the family social life such as living room. The families of one generation emphasize the importance of individual space quality. Two-generation families tend to consider the space for parenting and the possibility of temporary residence. While three-generation families tend to care for the elderly or raise their grandchildren. However, with current situation, such as the waste of space, low utilization, difficult reformation and so on, these needs are often difficult to meet. The research introduces open building theory and industrialized construction methods to explore strategies. 1) Adopting a frame structure to avoid bearing structures indoors and separating pipelines from structure to enhance spatial variability; 2) Encouraging the application of industrialized components to benefit space quality secondary reformation; 3) Encouraging residents to participate in the secondary stages of design. To verify the feasibility of the above strategies a study was carried out regarding community design in this area. It verified the changeable pattern for each stage of lifecycle, and provided a new idea for the sustainable development of living space. Keywords: sustainable living space, lifecycle, open building theory
Discussion on Changeable Design and Industrialized Technology Application for Youth Apartment
* Guang He, Tongji University, China
The long-term use of residential building is significant for saving environmental resources and sustainable development. Taking youth apartment as an example, the number of young people will constantly change with time, and different young people have different requirements for dormitory. In this context, the paper discusses how to effectively and sustainably use the limited space to meet the changeable requirement. Through questionnaire surveys and interviews (13 questions per questionnaire, 54 young people interviews in total), the paper analyzes changes in number of young people and their requirements, and then establishes a link between requirements and building plans which can be changed according to different requirements. By combining industrialized technology with changeable design, and comparing industrialized technology and traditional one, the paper further discusses how to achieve space variability and flexibility. As a result, the strategies for sustainable use of residential building space are proposed as follows: Firstly, the design should be based on needs of users, including psychological and behavioral aspects. For youth apartment, changes in the number of young people and requirements over time are worth considering. Secondly, industrialized technology is conducive to improving the quality of construction, and changeable design meets the requirements of diverse uses. The combination of the two can achieve effectiveness and durability of building space. Finally, from a technical perspective, the separation of skeleton and infill system can extend the service life of residential building, and also facilitate later use and maintenance. Changeable design is not only suitable for design of youth apartment. Based on the open building theory, it has high flexibility and can effectively realize the adaptation of other building to the time, which can guarantee the long life of building and save resources for future generations. Keywords: Sustainable Development, Youth Apartment, Questionnaire Survey, Changeable Design Method, Industrialized Technology
Perception of Dwelling Environment and Updates of Schemata through Experience of People from different countries Living in Japan
* Eriko Kawano, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
Satoshi Nasu, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
How do we perceive the dwelling environment and how does our perception change throughout life? As no ones life would be the same as others, his/her image of their dwelling environment will be highly diverse. However, the process of updating their image is likely to be affected in similar ways by living experience, environment and media. Above all, the living experience in different cultures may have an influence on how people perceive their dwelling environment. As researchers have pointed out, culture shock generally moves thorough four phases, honeymoon, frustration, adjustment and acceptance. The same kinds of stages may happen in cross-cultural living experiences, and this process should affect updates of an individual schema for the dwelling environment. This study explores how people from different countries living in Japan perceive the dwelling environment in Japan, and how they update their schemata of the dwelling environment through their living experience there. The subjects were non-Japanese adults (20s to 70s) living in Tokyo being from countries including North/South America, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Data were collected through questionnaires of thirty people and semi-structured interviews with eight people. Results show ones perception of the dwelling environment is categorized as functional aspects (accessibility, security, number of rooms and rent price) and conceptual aspects (aesthetics, openness, brightness and nature feeling). Various combinations of these aspects are dealt with to react to the dwelling environment through a life in Japan. Some people accept small rooms in Japan despite the fact that they prefer large spaces in their countries, whereas others create spacious environment by taking advantage of Japanese movable furniture for pursuing their ideal image. Thus, updated schemata reveal that some are in state of adjustment for the dwelling environment in Japan, while others keep their mind consistently for creating their own image in any place.
Q & A
The Happiness of Korean Housing Environment focused on PERMA theory
* Byungsook Choi, Jeonbuk National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Jung-a Park, Wonkwang University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Jin Lee, Jeonbuk National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This study was started from applying the happiness of positive psychology to environmental design. The studies on happiness have been conducted in the fields of society, psychology, education, arts and so on. However, there were not enough studies of happiness to houses, that was the origins and resting places of human life. This study aimed to develop a measuring tool for happiness focused on the house spending much time every day, and to empirically grasp the housing happiness of Koreans. The measure was developed from the PERMA theory (Bulter & Kern, 2016) and based on the theory of happiness in spaces (Stevens, Pertermans, & Vanrie, 2014; La, et. al., 2017; Choi & Park, 2018; Choi, Park, & Lee, 2019). The composition of measuring tool was 1) Positive Emotion means mindfulness, enjoyment, and satisfaction ; sensory stimuli (color, sound, smell, texture, and reminiscing), functional stimuli(comfort, safety, security, convenience, efficiency), 2) Engagement was an involving action; participate in building or remodeling your home, immerse yourself in your hobby or something at home, and try to a new space for yourself, 3) Relationships were the satisfaction of social needs; activities and relationships with nature, pets, family, and neighbors, empathy(belonging, sense of community), and support(public convenience, economics, and privacy), 4) Meaning was self-control belief; value, style, naming, and rewarding worth, 5) Accomplishment means self-actualization; dream realization, goal, responsibility, and sustainability through your house. To prove the validity of this measurement tool, preliminary investigations are currently underway for 60 Korean residents. The expected result is that some important factors of happiness on the house find out, and these factors are interpreted and adapted to housing design to be happier for users. *This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korean government(MEST) (NO. 2018R1A2B6005965) .
A Case Youth 101 of Jeonju City Social housing focused on studio type for young womens safety and security
* Hyunpyo Bae, Korean Housing Welfare Social Cooperative, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Jungtai Kim, Korean Housing Welfare Social Cooperative, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Byungsook Choi, Jeonbuk National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This study is to introduce social housing case of Jeonju City. Youth 101 is a social housing project that applied CPTED to women as one of 2018 projects promoted by Jeonju City for the purpose of stabilization of housing vulnerable families and resolving common residents. This house built in 2003 and was 3-story single family home including 16 households. This was converted into 15 unit rooms with shower & toilet and 1 community room. Jeonju City (500 million won) purchases real estate, and private sector renovated (190 million won). So this rental was below 80% of the market price, and finally 67% of it. Both unit rooms and community room were built-in furnishings, and one employee (Korean Housing Welfare Social Cooperative) had a role in charge of housing, consenting to community activities, making common rules, and managing residents’ needs. As a result of evaluating residents, the best thing of this house was that inexpensive rental, making their own food at home or eating together, feeling safety, and independent room with shower & toilet. The worst thing was that burden on community life, noise, and invasion of privacy. However, what they don’t want to move in the future. Specially they evaluated very high about independence of unit room. Also, regarding community life, education before moving in is necessary and mentioned the important of regular participation in cleaning of common space. This supply of Youth101 was intended to present a public-led case in terms of price and housing quality level. And it can be confirmed that the satisfaction of residents is high. Therefore, it is hoped that supply of social housing will keep to ensure the quality of residential living in Jeonju City.
Q & A
Saving time and building for resilience: socially conscious mass-manufacturing of residential buildings
* Reka Mandoki, University of Cambridge, Great Britain
John Orr, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Currently, the construction industry is facing numerous challenges. On the one hand, we are running out of time to deal with climate change, reduce carbon and meet sustainability goals. On the other hand, we are not able to build enough dwellings to end housing crises either in the developed countries nor the developing ones. As an answer to these problems, more and more attention is being paid to the concept of standardising or mass-customising building elements and their connections to create widely-applicable systems that are fully prefabricated, easy to assemble, and use as little material as possible. As they generally have rather predictable loads and spans, residential buildings seem suitable for mass-production. Since the 1960’s many mass-housing projects have been carried out all over the world; however, many of these have already become obsolete, due to the long-term effects that the new building patterns produced on people. This research examines the social aspects of the mass-production of residential buildings to help ensure that the mass-manufactured solutions of the future will be better and more socially aware than the previous attempts. The presentation will not only include results from two surveys that investigated the preferred uniqueness of one’s own dwelling and the variety our society requires from streetscapes but a quick overview of the related literature, and multiple examples from various industries to present the possible ways of mass-customising buildings. The conclusion will define both possible approaches and practical limits to the mass-production of homes. With our results, we hope to contribute to the policymaking related to the mass-manufacturing of residential buildings and investigate how parametric design and advanced manufacturing tools could be implemented in the design and construction of residential buildings to improve productivity and create resilient solutions.
Tracing Precinct Typologies and their Relationships with Community Interactions, Participation, and Sense of Place in High-rise, High-density Public Housing
* Tshui Mum Ha, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Yohei Kato, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Qingqing Chen, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
* Keng Hua Chong, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
Ate Poorthuis, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore
High-rise, high-density urban living has become a widely adopted urban solution to achieve sustainable growth in rapidly developing cities. However, vertical urban living has constantly been a challenge as social scientists, architects and planners attempt to create sustainable and livable cities that build upon close-knit communities. Study on high-rise urban living has been done mainly from a single point of view, individually on the economical, psychological and sociological dimensions, yet there is little discussion on how public housing design at a precinct level may have an impact on the joint psychological and sociological dimensions, which is crucial in gaining a holistic understanding of the urban fabrics. This work aims to explore the relationships between precinct typology, community interactions and participation, and perception of the sense of place in Singapore’s public housing. This research is set in the context of one of the oldest housing estates in Singapore - Toa Payoh - considering its wide variety of public housing design built over time. Various precinct typologies are derived based on attributes such as building morphology, programs, year of completion, the total number of residential units, unit types, and land area of each precinct. Large scale survey with residents living in Toa Payoh was conducted to understand how their neighbourliness, community participation, and sense of place developed within the fabric of high-rise living. Through comparative analysis, this work postulates that the level of neighbourliness, community participation, and sense of place may vary across different precinct typologies. The results of this work will identify precinct typologies that support close-knit communities in order to improve people-environment relations in the high-rise, high-density public housing.
A preliminary study on the living difficulties and resolving strategies of high-density Chinese cities: hybrid symbiotic vertical community
* Shuyuan Wang, Tongji University, China
Jinmin Zhou, Tongji University, China
At present, there are a large number of low-rise high density urban villages and immature high-rise high density concrete buildings in China's first- and second-tier cities.Under such conditions, the quality of the living environment has been shrinking, and the transformation of living space still seems to have not adapted to the space squeeze brought by the surge in urban building density. This reflects that under the socio-economic development and lifestyle changes, the form of living space is in an awkward transition period.It is necessary to explore the inherent needs and coexistence of these two high-density spaces,and to explore how future living space models will evolve. This article cuts through the current living environment of high-density cities in China’s first- and second-tier cities,and investigates four communities in Shanghai,Beijing, and Hefei in China. These include high-rise residential areas of youth ant colony,old alley community, urban village, and new urban area. Through analysis of location conditions,current status of building space, population composition, and feedback from 50 residents interview, combined with literature surveys, we analyze the causes and status quo of the typical low-rise high density and high-rise high density community forms that currently appear in cities, and their value in creating future living environment.And fianally through the case analysis of residential buildings at home and abroad, we try to propose a preliminary strategy for the construction of living environment space in a high-density environment, that is a hybrid symbiotic vertical growth community. The research makes analysis and reflection on the current high-density living environment dilemma in China, and attempts to explore possible directions for the development of high-density living environment in the future. In addition, the actual implementation requires coordination of other factors, and more efforts need to be made in terms of market environment, management mode and technical conditions.
Q & A