|Friday, June 26|
Assessment of the sustainability of risk management measures: an interdisciplinary approach
Corinne Curt, IRSTEA, France
Anne Tricot, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Nelly Parès, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Pascal Di Maiolo, IRSTEA, France
Thomas Curt, IRSTEA, France
Franck Sfiligoï-Taillandier, IRSTEA, France
Aurélie Arnaud, LIEU, Aix-Marseille University, France
* Alexandra Schleyer-Lindenmann, UMR ESPACE, Aix-Marseille University, France
Grey infrastructures (e.g. levees) or nature-based solutions (e.g. wetlands) are used to manage risk. Our work led during the APOGEE research project aims at assessing the sustainability of such measures. An interdisciplinary research team (geography, engineering, decision support, psychology and sociology) was involved to carry out this analysis. The team developed criteria and indicators considering environmental and social aspects as criteria to assess the sustainability of protective measures concerning risks such as forest fires, floods and coastal flooding. Based on the French Norm ISO 37101 concerning sustainable development in communities nine criteria (e.g. Attractiveness of place; Preservation and improvement of the environment; Well-being and Life quality; Technical specifications) specified by 35 indicators (e.g. place attachment; Protection, restoration and improvement of biological diversity) were produced. A first characterization of the different types of measures by the grid of indicators was made by researchers. These indicators were then submitted in a focus group to various risk managers (actors of risk prevention or crisis management on different levels of territorial risk prevention) in a middle-sized town in the south of France, in order to be discussed and validated (or not). The focus group validated 42 % of the indicators without modification and proposed minor (27%) or major (31%) modifications. An indicator was also added. The actors also made their own characterization of the different types of measures with the reviewed grid. The group of actors found this kind of tool useful for comparing risk management measures, and for exchange with inhabitants at different times (before and after the decision). This research illustrated a science – manager interaction based on a clearly defined tool which allowed exchanges and the development of shared meanings concerning measures related to risk protection.
Construction of a scale for measuring ascription of environmental responsibility in Mexicans
* Saimy Hernández, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
Elizabeth López, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
Ascription of responsibility is an individual cognitive process (Crespo y Freire, 2014) that implies the degree to which a person feels responsible for the consequences of their own behavior over the environment (Van Liere & Dunlap, 1978), which can be attributed to oneself as a consumer as well as other agents in the social context such as government, the industry, ecological groups or others external entities (Van Raaij & Verhallen, 1982). In the absence of psychometrically valid scales for measuring ascription of responsibility for the Mexican population, we developed a scale to measure the responsibility of energy consumption. In this research participated 120 inhabitants of Mexico City (60 women) with a mean age of 31 years. The scale was undergone thru content and psychometric validation through the process proposed by Reyes & García (2008): first, a distribution analysis was carried out to know the discriminatory power of each item; then, we calculated the bias in which it was reported that all items were normally distributed. Afterwards, it was carried out a discrimination analysis between extreme groups. After obtaining the internal consistency and the items differentiation, a principal components analysis with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was developed which resulted in the scale conformed by 10 items organized by two factors as it follows: Ascription of oneself and adscription of others that explain jointly a 63.25% of variance; also, the reliability analysis through Cronbach’s alpha resulted in a coefficient of .879. The psychometric characteristics of the scale indicate that it is a valid and reliable tool for assessing ascription of responsibility according to Van Raaij & Verhallen (1982) and with other studies on proenvironmental behavior.
Q & A
Environmental education tools to promote simple pro-environmental behaviour among preschool children in Japan and Sweden
* Pimkamol Mattsson, Lund University, Sweden
Shimpei Iwasaki, Fukuoka Women's University, Japan
Environmental education in early childhood has been pointed out as having a great potential to promote pro-environmental behaviour in early years. Among various tools, games and visual items are commonly used for children’s learning and development and therefore, could possibly be used to promote such behaviour among young children. However, their impact on the actual behaviour should be investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether and to what extent board games and visual items (prompts) can promote simple behaviour, i.e. turning lights off in preschool environments. It was expected that (i) board games can enhance awareness of, knowledge about, and promote the behaviour and (ii) visual prompts can increase the likelihood of the behaviour. A paper-board game was developed with the main principle that players have to turn lights off when leaving an empty room in a preschool while a visual prompt illustrating on and off lamps. These tools were tested in two preschools in Southern Sweden and Japan respectively, where a total of 35 children, 3-6 years, took part. In a case of Sweden, observations revealed that occasions that lights were turned off (i.e. light-off occasions) in the toilets and washroom increased by 41% after the game intervention, while the prompts did not increase the behaviour. On the other hand, it was found in a Japanese preschool that light-off occasions in the toilets increased by 20% after the game intervention, while light-off occasions further increased by 13% after the prompt was placed. The differences in physical environments as well as social contexts between the two preschools may influence the children’s behaviour in this study. The results would add knowledge about actual pro-environmental behaviour among preschool children and also, facilitate design improvements of environmental education tools as well as behaviour interventions for preschools.
What aspects do people find restorative in their neighborhood?
* Seiji Shibata, Sagami Women's University, Japan
Restorativeness of the environment is one of the key concepts in people-environment studies, and many studies have shown that natural environments have high restorativeness compared to urban environments. Most of the studies on the restorativeness of the environment have focused on specific places such as parks and green fields, and the short-term experience of such places. In terms of qualities of life, restorative qualities of people's everyday environment should also be critical. However, the restorativeness of people's neighborhoods or towns has not been well considered. The objectives of our study are to assess the restorative potential of people's living areas and to examine the relationships among people's psychological well-being, place attachment, and place identity. As a first step, we carried out an Internet survey regarding which aspects of people's neighborhoods they found restorative using a free-answer question. Fifteen hundred and sixty valid responses were obtained from 821 respondents, age 30 to 70. When we classified the responses based on the description contents, 480 (30.8%) of them contained notions about nature, such as the view of mountains, sea, rivers, and availability of greens, and it was the most frequent in the response categories. The second and the third most frequent categories were quietness of the area (n=111, 7.1%) and relationships among people in the neighborhood (n=107, 6.9%). There was no difference according to the respondents' age groups in the frequencies of these responses. These results give us insights as to what kinds of interventions are useful to increase the restorative potential of people's everyday environment. The details of these results will be presented and discussed.
From Activity to Atmosphere: A Case Study of Shanghai Zhongshan Park
* Yitong Wang, Tongji University, China
As urban designers or architects, we usually define and design public space by the disciplines of spatial elements, like the scale of space, the number of benches, and the position of trees and so on. However, the constitution of space (Martina Löw, 2008) claimed that space is more influenced and defined by social groups and their actions. Case study here is one of early concession parks in Shanghai. At first it was designed into many different types of gardens for aesthetic function and turned into a 24H park today. No matter what function is designed in the very beginning, people choose their own place to dance, play chess or do exercise and therefor form a new space by doing all these activities. The physical space remained but the atmosphere changed because people activities. How people’s activities influence the constitution of space and then create the atmosphere of the space is the main discussion in this research This study unfolds as follows. First section will discuss theoretically how day-to-day activities constitute a space. The next section will argue the invisible mechanism behind daily activities and how that shows spatially through the case study of Zhongshan Park. Finally, a close look at the case will further discuss how people claim their rights during spacing and synthesis and how it helps the new “publicness” formed.
Q & A
A Pilot Study of Effective Corridor Design Improving Wayfinding Behavior in Underground Malls
* Shaoqing Zhang, Pusan National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Soobeen Park, Pusan National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Jeong Sook Noh, Tongmyong University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Eun ju Cho, Pusan National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
SooJeong Kim, Pusan National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Yanru Cheng, Pusan National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Wayfinding concerns shopping experience, especially in underground malls where has poor lighting conditions and insufficient visibility. Wayfinding difficulties may cause issues such as loss of time, which negatively affects consumers' shopping confidence, or patronage intentions; however, designers pay too much emphasis on wayfinding efficiency than the experience. By simulating a series of exit-finding tasks in virtual underground malls, this study aims to verify whether corridor intersection configuration attributes, such as width, length, height, and radian, act as factors of attraction to affair people's wayfinding behavior, and further compare their attractiveness to pathfinders. As the first theoretical contribution, this study provides the first empirical evidence of whether the corridor configuration affects people's wayfinding behavior. The results suggest that people prefer a wider, higher, smoother, and shorter path. Specifically, the up-pathways with stairs show most attractive to exit-finders, followed by the corridors which have a broader width, or rounded angles, the short one shows visible but relatively small affinity.
Emergency evacuation strategy from deep and complicated underground public spaces
* Tomonori Sano, Waseda University, Japan
Masataka Yasue, Waseda University, Japan
The central area of Tokyo has a huge network of underground spaces, such as corridors and squares. The basement floors of high-rise buildings connect to these underground corridors. These spaces form a type of maze, and people often wander in such underground corridors. Tokyo has a large population, and many people often use the city’s underground spaces as public spaces for meeting with friends and taking a rest, among other purposes. However, some underground spaces are located very deep, and people might not be able to evacuate to ground easily in case of fire and disaster. In such scenarios, emergency lights are effective in guiding people toward the exits. However, the setting of lights is not sufficient to guide people correctly. Two types of signs are in place: light signs on the ceiling and luminous signs on the floor. At present, these signs do not point to the same direction, leading to confusion. This study aimed to consider an evacuation strategy from underground spaces using emergency lights. An experiment with participants in actual underground spaces in Tokyo was conducted in 2019, and their evacuation process, including statements made throughout, was recorded by a video camera placed at the back of x. The data were analyzed to investigate the activities of evacuees during wayfinding and the efficiency of the emergency lights, such as recognition percentage, in the actual underground space. The factors leading participants to make mistakes in choosing a route were identified as well. Subsequently, an effective evacuation strategy from underground was discussed. In conclusion, emergency lights should be laid in underground public spaces, corridors, and stairs to ensure that people can navigate correctly to ground. The number of emergency signs should be decreased and arrange properly as the presence of too many emergency signs could confuse evacuees and complicate the evacuation.
The commuting in México City. An exploratory study
* Fransilvania Callejas Pérez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
Patricia Ortega Andeane, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
María Emilia Lucio Gómez-Maqueo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
The commuting can be a stressor in the people who live in urban settings. Mexico City is one the most populous in Latin America, is among the 10 cities with the highest vehicular traffic in the world, here the commuting times have increased. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the commuting that represent a stressor for workers who travel on public transport, how they feel and how they coping to the demands of the travel. Participated 26 men and women over 18 years of age who live in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City were interviewed either in a group or individually according to their possibilities. It was found that some characteristics of the commuting such as vehicular traffic, poor accessibility, poor transport availability, long waiting times, assaults, sexual harassment, discussion with drivers and other users as well as discomfort can be stressful on the travel; especially if these characteristics are a risk to the well-being of people either emotional, physical or economic, since they repeatedly arriving late to at work or their home, in consequence facing cash discounts at work, they spend more to the taxi, as well they have less time with the family, less hours of sleep. For the stressful events of the commuting, the workers adopt some coping strategies to prevention, problem resolution or harm reduction. The characteristics of the commuting are perceived and coping of different form between groups, especially between men and women, married and single, youth and adults, each group has different conditions, so they evaluate different their commuting. In conclusion it is considered that the stress of the commuting is presented both by the characteristics of the person and the conditions of the tour.
Influence of Urban Metro Network implanted in the neighborhood on travel activity for older adults
* Bai Jiayuan, Dalian University of Technology, China
Lu Wei, Dalian University of Technology, China
The development of the Urban Metro Network System (UMNS) in China was established based on urban renewal, with particular characteristics. After the metro station implanted into the existing residential area, the travel activity of residents had a significant impact, especially for older adults. Previous studies have shown that older adults depended on the community facilities more than the younger, but also there is evidence indicated that the likability of metro and using frequency for the elderly were higher, which may affect the tendency of using community facilities. Therefore, this study explored the implanted development pattern of UMNS impacted on travel distance and facility utilization of the elderly. We conducted an empirical study in an aging residential area in inner suburbs with a new metro station. Using the travel activity data of older adults, POI data, and transportation network data to measure the accessibility of various facilities, and established a space-time path model to analysis the travel distance of older adults. The results show that the travel activity of older adults has been extended by implantation of metro station to the neighborhood. They were gradually using farther facilities instead of community facilities, this probably is related to the reducing travel distance threshold of the elderly. In addition, comparing the use range of various service facilities, we found that commercial facilities were most significantly influenced by the subway, which shows a tendency that it developed toward agglomeration of the subway station area. Subway mode reduced the traffic risks in travel and broke the limits of dependence to community service facilities for the elderly that increased the possibility of selecting long-distance facilities. These findings present a new perspective for understanding the impact of UMNS development on the travel activities of the elderly.
Q & A