|Friday, June 26|
Coloured lighting ambiances in northern latitudes: simulating design strategies for healthy interior scenarios
* Carolina Espinoza-Sanhueza, Université Laval, Canada
Claude M. H. Demers, GRAP Groupe de Recherche en Ambiances Physiques, Canada
Marc Hébert, Université Laval, Canada
Jean-François Lalonde, Computer Vision and Systems Lab, Canada
André Potvin, Université Laval, Canada
Light is indispensable for human beings, consisting in the first connection from interior to exterior environments. Coloured light creates architectural ambiances responsible for multiple biological processes affecting well-being. This research studies luminous ambiances to design healthy interior environments using Adaptive Lighting for Alertness (ALFA) simulation software. High latitudes of Northern regions, including Québec and above, present significant periods of longer nights during winter which obstructs human exposition to daylight, generating several disorders including desynchronization of the circadian clock and problems for humans to perform in quotidian life. Previous research has shown that corresponding amounts of light intensity and colour temperature, at the proper time, have the potential to improve well-being. The present research therefore develops a human centric approach to natural and artificial light in relation to architecture, fundamental to ensure recommended exposure to coloured light. A typical laterally lit window space corresponding to an office or classroom is used as a test chamber. Properties of surfaces such as reflectance, colour and material types, produce variations in our brain responses, reflected as visual and non-visual effects in people. The study compares recognized parameters of light and color affecting well-being through simulation: 1) daylighting from clear and overcast skies, 2) red-dominant and blue-enriched color content of artificial light sources, and 3) material colour applications in daylit spaces. Results from software simulation integrate temporal analysis (date/hour), climate-based daylight types, and eye-level light exposures to generate indoor environmental mapping distribution of melanopic lux, enabling to compare the availability of a circadian-effective light stimulus. In terms of conclusion, this research generates a series of colour-space performance inhabitation scenarios in relation to light, presented as a classification of design strategies applicable for Nordic Architecture.
An Ongoing Study of Using Eye Tracking to Understand the Impact of Educational Training and Visual Complexity on Viewers' Aesthetic Preferences
* Dilara Beder, Bilkent University, Turkey
Cagri Imamoglu, Bilkent University, Turkey
Cengiz Acarturk, Middle East Technical University, Turkey
Human-environment interactions are based on how individuals perceive, react and evaluate their surroundings. Complexity, the important variable in perception, cognition and evaluation studies, has been considered to be an important notion of aesthetic preferences. Architects and landscape architects have studied the desirable level of complexity in large contexts (i.e., natural and urban landscape). Although complexity has been studied in urban and natural landscapes, we have a limited understanding of how interior architectural elements relate to complexity and viewers’ aesthetic preferences. The present study process to examine the influence of complexity and educational training on individuals’ aesthetic preferences. The designed visual stimuli will be arranged according to their levels of complexity and eye tracker will be used to examine potential differences in the perception of architectural elements between people depending on their educational training. The results will include (i) the relationship between viewers’ visual complexity perception and aesthetic preferences with their educational training and (ii) understanding the relations of eye movements of people while perceiving interior architectural spaces based on their educational training.
Effects of Size of Room on Subjective Sense of Time
* Sodai Kono, Chiba University, Japan
Yohsuke Yoshioka, Chiba University, Japan
This study investigated the effects of size, which is a fundamental component, of space on sense of time by a subject experiment using virtual environmental technology. Through the analysis of experimental results, we aim to obtain knowledge for practical control method of sense of time in a space design. Eight subjects wearing a head-mounted-display experienced three sized cubic-rooms (X2: 2x2x2m, X4: 4x4x4m, X8: 8x8x8m) and a floor-only space (Base-Condition) in virtual environment. The timer built in the environment was programmed to be able to start and stop by pressing space-key on a keyboard. Subjects were divided into two groups of four people each, and the order of the conditions was changed for each group (Group A: X2-X4-X8, Group B: X8-X4-X2). First, subject entered Base-Condition and were asked to measure "Standard-Time", by stopping the timer when they feel that 60 seconds have passed. After that, the same measurement was performed twice in each three sized cubic rooms. The time measured here was called "Playback-Time" and subjects were asked to measure it by pressing key when they feel that the same length of time has elapsed as Standard-Time. By comparing and analyzing of the difference between Standard-Time and Playback-Time in each condition, the following things were found. In group A, the sense of time in X4 was significantly longer than it in X8. This result indicated that the subjective time passes slowly in a larger space (like as 8m-height, 8m-width, and 8m-depth) than usual. And in X4 condition, the sense of time in Group B was significantly longer than the one of Group A. This result indicated that the sense of time was influenced by the order of presentation of the experimental space. It might be possible to control the sense of time by the size and the presenting order of space.
Q & A
A Study on Visual Preference and Environmental Analysis of Cafe Streets
* Chae Young Woo, Hanyang University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Sunghyun Moon, Hanyang University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Danqiong Liu, Hanyang University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Yeon Sook Hwang, Hanyang University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
Recently, the Korean cafe market is constantly growing, and cafes now have more purposes beyond the traditional one. Such individual-style cafes tend to get together along the same streets, so-called ‘cafe streets’. Each cafe street has characteristics as a single cultural space, while providing consumers with a diversity of choices and various experiential elements. Especially, sight accounts for over 80% when people get impressed in new environments, so visual elements must be the primary ones used to evaluate cafe streets. Thus, this study aims to analyze the present states of cafe streets and visual preferences in cafe users, and suggest a desirable direction of cafe street environments. This study investigated visual preferences of cafe users from 4 typical cafes in Seoul. Through space analysis, this study analyzed correlations between preference and space. As for research methods, visual preference evaluation elements were extracted first, and based on a preference survey with adjective vocabulary, this study analyzed the environments of cafe streets through observation and photography shooting. Conclusions are as follows. In aesthetic preference for cafe exteriors, such elements as ‘formal’, ‘sophisticated’, ‘mature’ and ‘ordinary’ were high. It was also found that ‘bright’ was high in texture, ‘modern and exotic’ in historicity, and ‘open’ in openness. In preference for surrounding environments, such elements as ‘regular’, ‘tranquil’, ‘simple’, and ‘dynamic’ were high. Therefore, when cafe streets are designed with exotic and modern interiors, rather than traditional elements, based on environmental plans with simple and neat elements, rather than unique and fancy elements, they are expected to get more preferred by consumers. Especially when people have experience of being visually stimulated by aesthetic designs, visual elements may work as main preference elements. Therefore, this study came to conclusion that visual environmental factors play very important roles in cafe streets.
Young Residents Preferences and Attitudes to Rental Housing Environment and Typologies: A Psychographic Segmentation to Housing Design for the Future
* Jingwen Chen, Tongji University, China
Due to the shortage of rental housing supply in large cities and the severe housing problems among youth in China, the state and government have proposed a series of policies to develop rental housing, especially in first-tier cities, including aspects about quantity, high-quality and diversity of supply. Beyond the stage of large-scale housing construction, the main problems of rental housing in China are low living conditions, insufficient performance, extensive construction, irregular management, that make it unable to meet the changing living needs of residents. The challenges (and opportunities) of rental housing development include: the diversity of residential demands among youth and requirements for improving the living environment; and longevity and variability for the sake of sustainable development in future construction. Studying the behavior, attitudes and needs of occupants has become an important part of the housing issue. With the insight of designing for the future, this study applied psychographic segmentation methods to explore the factors behind dwellers’ preferences and to provide empirical data and basis for community environment and housing typologies strategies (approximately 100 samples). The investigation of preferences focused on community environment, typologies and service types of rental housing. The analysis contained the process of grouping people based on lifestyle and personalities and comparison of psychographic profiles among occupants. By multivariate statistical analysis, this study intended to place residents on “Life-style” dimensions, that will offer the opportunity to develop new living environment types and dwelling typologies to the needs of different groups within the population. Above all, the research sheds light on the influences of residents’ changing needs for rental housing. The results demonstrated the demand patterns through the life-style descriptions, and the methodology provided a new approach to make predictions about the effects of future changes in environment and typologies.
Effect of the accommodation size and plan configuration on preference and perception (concerning Japanese and non-Japanese)
* Zahrasadat Hosseini, Shinshu University , Japan
Ryota Yanase, Shinshu University , Japan
The majority of accommodations are built in big cities. That is to say, the construction of accommodations has a high impact on shaping urban fabrics. Moreover, due to the incremental population of visitors across these cities, tiny space requires further attention. With the space being premium, construction of small accommodation, for instance, capsule hotels are trending in big cities, and guests who spend time in these facilities have different negative and positive perspectives toward it. The length of staying is a dominant criterion changing the guests' feelings. The space characteristic and personality are other factors to define the tendency of staying in tiny rooms. In residential houses, it is salient that size and shape influence occupants' responses. In the context of lodging; however, these parameters of the space have a different aspect on travelers' decision on choosing accommodation. This research explains the correspondence of these parameters. 50 Japanese and 33 non-Japanese answered the questionnaire. Four different sizes of rooms (20, 15, 10, 8 ) in three configurations (linear, middle, square) were examined. The purpose of this study is two-folded. (1) Finding the occupants' tendency to stay in various small size lodgings, by measuring duration (short time, average time, and long-time) and the number of people, (2) understanding a correlation between the shape of the floor plan and participants space perceptions. In general, this research aims at exploring travelers' choices at temporary accommodation destinations. As a result, both Japanese and non-Japanese prefer to choose a square plan for a more extended stay. Additionally, by expanding the size of the room, the guests' desire to stay longer with more people increases correspondingly. However, affordability and design of the room are the factors that can change this result.
Q & A
When being green is frowned upon: Different messages consumers see in luxurious vs. budget hotel environments
* Annice Lee, Cornell University, United States
So-Yeon Yoon, Cornell University, United States
The hospitality industry has recently engaged in diverse, sustainable initiatives to become a “green hotel” that conserves natural resources while increasing customer satisfaction (Gao & Matilla, 2014). However, these hotels are subject to “green skepticism,” in which some consumers do not perceive the initiatives positively (Leonideu & Skarmeas, 2015). Similarly, consumers may see that the experience they pay for is compromised with the hotel’s resource conservation. The purpose of this study is to identify how luxurious (vs. budget) hotel room environment can affect customer satisfaction of the hotel experience depending on perceptions of sustainability cues (linen and towel reuse signs) and environmental consciousness. While previous studies have generally exhibited a positive relationship between sustainability and customer satisfaction, this study will present findings on how spatial qualities contribute to the perception and understanding of environmental cues in hotel rooms. A 2 (hotel environment: luxurious vs. budget) x 2 (sustainability cue: present vs. absent) experiment will be employed in a within-subjects design from a pool of Cornell University students. Photorealistic environments were designed and rendered using Revit with the Enscape Virtual Reality plug-in. Interactive simulation through a head-mounted display (HMD) and position sensors allowed viewers to walk around the space for a life-like experience. Twenty-two subjects participated in the experiment. Questionnaires for manipulation check, perceived motives (Becker-Olsen et al., 2006), customer satisfaction (Oliver, 2010), and environmental consciousness (Bohlen et al., 1993) were administered after the virtual experience. Interesting findings from the analysis, including more positive perceptions towards sustainability cues in the luxurious hotel and moderation effects of individual attitude on perceived satisfaction, will be discussed in the presentation. This investigation broadens previous research and provides recommendations for immediate and future hotel environments that can influence consumer satisfaction and, ultimately, improve our understanding of people-environment interactions.
Building Time: Positive Connections to the Past, Present and Future in Built Environments as Sources of Security, Contentment and Optimism
* Kevin Nute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States
Zhuo Job Chen, Clemson University , United States
Topic How temporal cues in built spaces could improve psychological well-being. Objectives The role(s) built environments might be able to play in evoking positive connections to the past, present, and future, and the psychological benefits that might flow from such connections. Method One hundred subjects completed an online quantitative questionnaire assessing their responses to a series of images of interior spaces with and without visual cues designed to evoke positive connections to the past, present and future. Results 1. subjects preferred spaces with sloping ceilings, hearths, and refuge and prospect to spaces without these features, and this was positively associated with a sense of security and a positive feeling of being connected to the past. 2. perceptible change in indoor spaces made time appear to pass more quickly than in the same space without such change, and this was positively associated with a sense of contentment and a positive feeling of being connected to the present. 3. indoor spaces with distant outdoor views made subjects feel a greater sense of freedom and possibility than the same spaces without such views or with shorter prospects, and this was positively associated with a sense of optimism and a positive feeling of being connected to the future. Implications It is postulated that: 1. the hearth, sloping canopy, and refuge and prospect constitute shelter archetypes, and their widespread popularity—even among those with no direct experience of them—is an example of unconscious recollection. 2. perceptible change distracts us from awareness of duration, which has been associated with discontent. 3. visual prospects are associated with positive potential experiences, and they encourage anticipation in much the same way as we “look forward” to pleasurable events.
Q & A