|Tuesday, November 24|
Exploring the governance of an edible insect trade chain through the lens of mopane worms in southern Africa
* James George Sekonya, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Rachel Wynberg, University of Cape Town
This paper explores the governance of edible caterpillar harvesting and marketing in Botswana and South Africa. We investigated the institutional and regulatory frameworks within which mopane worm livelihoods are situated and the extent to which governance approaches constrain or promote the informal cross-border trade. Actor perspectives revealed significant governance challenges that impact their ability to access harvesting sites and markets, including regulatory overburden, overlapping institutional mandates and a high cost of compliance cost significantly. The incapacity of regulatory institutions to enforce rules inadvertently encouraged corruption and cross-border smuggling to circumvent costly compliance requirements. The discrimination of non-nationals at harvesting areas in Botswana and markets in South Africa were the source of retaliatory exclusions which hindered the aspirations of cross-border traders. Moreover, increasing commercialisation led to an increase in elite capture as well as the flouting of customary harvesting rules and norms.
Communities, Insects and Sustainable Food Production Systems - Experiences of insect gatherers in Uganda
* Liliane Binego, Coventry University, United Kingdom
Michel Pimbert, Coventry University Research Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience
Traditionally, certain insect species are identified as suitable for human consumption as direct food or used in livestock feed, cropping processes, and in sustaining the agrobiodiversity as pollinators. At least two billion people eat about two thousands one hundred and forty insect species worldwide. For these consumers, insects are part of their traditions, food culture and livelihoods. There is the need to recognise insect gathering as part of these communities’ food production systems.
Promoting the production and transformation of edible insects in West and Central Africa
* Philippe Le Gall, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France
Muafor John Fogoh, Living Forest Trust
Samir Mezdour, AgroParisTech
Ivan Le Mintier, ARMELL
Gilles Flutsch, Planète Cétoines
Manuel Vaxelaire, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
Melanie Ramnuth, Experts Solidaires
We described pilot farms and studies of the value chain of edible insects, which have been developed in 3 African countries. In Cameroon LIFT and IRD have developed farming of the African Palm Weevils. IIn Benin, the project led by Experts-Solidaires aims to build an experimental farm and transformation unit dedicated to the production of two African crickets, Gryllus sigillatus and G. bimaculatus, within the Songhaï Center in Porto-Novo. In Rep of Central Africa, the goals of the project leaded by ACF are to described and consolidated the existing market of edible caterpillars and then to document the ways to strengthen the production and the consumption of this valuable source of protein.
Bamboo worm harvesting in Myanmar: more benefits or threats?
* Myint Thu Thu Aung, Center for Development Research(ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany
Jochen Dürr, Center for Development Research(ZEF), University of Bonn
In Myanmar, different kinds of insects are consumed depending on the region. In Eastern Shan State, bamboo caterpillars (Omphisa fuscidentalis) are abundant and highly esteemed for human consumption. The larvae predominantly infect the Wabo bamboo (Dendrocalamus brandisii), which traditionally is cut down for harvesting them. This study aims to investigate the socio-economic benefits and ecological threats of bamboo worm harvesting in local communities. Interviews with value chain actors were conducted in Kengtung district, using a structured questionnaire. Results show that the bamboo worm is a traditional, seasonal food, eaten both as meals and as snacks. Its main season is from September to December; however, fried bamboo worm is available at markets throughout the year. It is marketed not only regionally, but also on foreign markets such as China and Thailand. In recent years, demand and prices have been increasing, and this was reflected in a rising number of bamboo harvesters in the villages. Harvested quantities vary depending on the skill of the hunter, time spent and method of harvesting. There are two types of harvesting: one is making a hole on the internodes exactly where the bamboo worm lives, and the other is cutting down the entire tree. The latter is the most widely used technique for commercial collection because it is less time-consuming. Skilled hunters get around 10 USD/kg and can gain up to USD 1,600 per season. The number of actors in the value chain varies from two to six depending on the location of the villages, economic condition of the hunter, market accessibility and distance to markets. Harvesters get the highest share of around 39 % of consumer price, it is followed by retailers with 38%. Whereas local collectors participate with 15%, and wholesalers with 8%. In short, bamboo worms generate not only protein-rich food but also job opportunities as well as income in poor regions of Myanmar. Along with the rising number of hunters, bamboo forest conservation is needed. Strategies for bamboo forest preservation are needed to ensure the sustainability of bamboo worm harvesting.
The market of edible Caterpillars in the Republic of Central Africa
* Manuel Vaxelaire, Action Against Hunger, France
Bader Mahaman, Action Against Hunger
Cyril Lekiefs, Action Against Hunger
Philippe Le Gall, Action Against Hunger
John Fogoh Muafor, Living Forest Trust
Samir Mezdour, AgroParisTech
Edible caterpillars are the most consumed insects in Central African Republic (CAR). This informal sector ensures food security, livelihoods, and an important income for the most vulnerable population in the city and countryside during the collection season (July to mid-September). A study along the value chain conducted in 2018 showed that this value chain is very resilient, as it recovered in a few years from the effect of the crisis in 2012-2013. The main changes that occured following the troubles is the apparition of a new actor: wholesalers coming from cities to buy fresh caterpillar in surrounding villages. Nutritional anlysis proved the value of caterpillars, but smoked caterpillars showed high rates of HAP. 95% of Central African Republic eat caterpillars, which can represent up to 49% of their protein intake during the season. This value chain needs to be strenghtened and protected, as there is no control on the caterpillar population, and host trees are being exploited for industrial use.
Edible caterpillars and insects in North Kivu : a potential asset for the development and strengthening of community forestry
Maurice Nsase, Forêt pour le Développement Intégral (FODI)
* Stéphane Person, Forest Goods Growing, France
Thaddée Twendi, Sauvons les Êtres et Nature en Détresse (SENAD)
Among the various forest products exploited in North Kivu (DRC), caterpillars and other edible insects have an important place there and their valorization could be an asset for local development.and ongoing community forestry projects.