|Wednesday, November 25|
Overall acceptability of fillets of rainbow trout fed diets with increasing levels of Tenebrio molitor larva meal
* Alberto Brugiapaglia, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences
Sara Bellezza Oddon, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences
Ilaria Biasato, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences
Manuela Renna, University of Turin - Department of Veterinary Science
Giulia Chemello, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences
Christian Caimi, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences
Achille Schiavone, University of Turin - Department of Veterinary Science
Francesco Gai, Institute of Food Production, National Research Council
Laura Gasco, University of Turin - Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Italy
Insect meals are promising candidates as protein source in aqua-feeds. This study evaluated the overall acceptability of grow-out rainbow trout fed increasing dietary levels of defatted Tenebrio molitor larvae meal (T) and precisely: 0% (T0), 5% (T5), 10% (T10), and 20% (T20). At the end of the trial (154 days), fish fillets were vacuum-cooked (water bath, 75°C, 20 minutes). A total of 85 untrained consumers were asked to evaluate the sample overall acceptability by the use of the 9-point hedonic scale. Afterwards, the consumers were asked to motivate their judgment choosing one of the following organoleptic characteristics: odour, taste or texture. A mixed ANOVA model with overall acceptability as dependent variable, dietary treatment as fixed effect and consumer as random effect, was performed. Tukey’s multiple comparison test was used to determine significant differences (P< 0.05) among experimental groups. The acceptability scores given by each consumer were then converted into ranked data by assigning rank order numbers to the evaluations. Ranking data were analysed with the non-parametric Friedman’s test. Finally, the numeric hedonic scores were classified into two categories as follow: ≤5, representing negative ratings (“dislike extremely” to “neither like nor dislike”) and >5 representing positive ratings (like slightly to like extremely). Once the data were categorized a correspondence analysis was performed involving the organoleptic characteristics chosen by consumers to motivate their judgement. The results of the affective test showed that mode of T5 group showed the highest value (8 = like very much). The average acceptability scores of the trout fed on T ranged from 5.88 (T20) to 6.93 (T5), which corresponds to “like slightly” and to “like moderately” according to the 9-point hedonic scale. On average, about the 75% of the consumers rated acceptable the meat of the four groups. ANOVA performed on mean hedonic ratings showed that fillets from T5, and T10 groups were preferred in comparison with T20 group. No differences were reported for all fish groups fed insect meals against T0. The Friedman’s test confirmed the ANOVA results. In fact, T5 and T10 groups were preferred in comparison with T20 group. Therefore, even if all groups were well accepted by consumer, results highlighted that a partial replacement of fish meal with T improves the overall acceptability of the product as indicated by correspondence analysis.
Role of culture in the acceptability of insects as food
* Agathe Marie, IAE d'Angers, France
Gaëlle Pantin-Sohier, IAE d'Angers
Céline Gallen, IAE de Nantes
Entomophagy, the practice of eating insects, is recognized as a sustainable food solution to face the rising population, both in terms of protein intake and environmental footprint. Even if it tends to rise in Western countries, entomophagy is hampered by Westerners’ mental representations of insects considered inedible. The perceived edibility of a product varies from one individual to the next according to different contextual factors, primarily the individual’s cultural system. Indeed, cultural norms indicate how to mentally categorize a food and determine its sensory properties. Culture therefore explains why it is so difficult to introduce new food products into many of the world’s regions. In addition, disgust is one of the major reasons identified by anthropologists for the rejection of a food. It corresponds to the repulsion felt at the idea of incorporating a substance and can be explained by the fear of contamination. A way to reduce this food disgust is familiarization, a repeated exposure to a product. Familiarization decreases the aversion towards a product, also resulting in greater appreciation and acceptance with a raise of the willingness to try it. Then, it is important to consider the level of familiarity with entomophagy within a country when studying its acceptability. This acceptability is also influenced by consumers’ attitude, a major predictor of behavior in Marketing studies. The aim of this study is to determine the role of culture in the acceptability of entomophagy with three measures: the proportion of participants who have already eaten insects (familiarity), their food disgust level and their attitude towards entomophagy. To test our hypothesis, we decided to apply measuring scales developed in consumer behavior (Food Disgust Scale, Entomophagy Attitude Questionnaire) on a sample of French consumers and compared our results with those obtained in other countries: inside (Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland) and outside (Australia, the United States) Europe. The study conducted on 110 participants reveals cultural differences on several points. First, the proportion of participants who have already eaten insects showed various levels of familiarization among Westerners. Then, results indicated different food disgust levels considering the country of the participants. Finally, the attitude towards entomophagy was different for each of the three dimensions of the scale: disgust, interest, feeding animals. Hence, by influencing familiarization, food disgust and attitude, culture also impacts the acceptability of insects as food.
Bugs for the Future! A Step-by-Step Education Guide for Learning about Sustainability with Insects at Home and in Schools
* Katharina Unger, Livin Farms HK Ltd, Hong Kong
There are still several hurdles for insects to become a staple protein source for humans and animals. Although consumers seem to have a good understanding about the environmental benefits of insects as a protein source, there is still a lack of education when it comes to eating insects or raising them as pet food or animal feed. Also, the so called “Yck Factor” is still a known barrier for market entry. Many of the prejudices could be overcome if there was more education on the “Why” of the insect sector. Along the lines of a well-known proverb “A tree must be bent while it is young”, young people can be a critical benchmark for insects to reach wide acceptance as a protein source in the near future. Furthermore, as sustainability is becoming an obligatory lesson in some national curricula, there is opportunity for insects to act as important messengers of sustainability learning. Livin Farms has developed a mini insect farm (“Hive Explorer”) and accompanying education materials and employed them in several workshops and classroom sessions for students from Kindergarden to University, starting at age 5. In the work process with more than 20 educational institutes and educators, mostly in Asia and Europe, several learnings were collected. A step-by-step approach was developed and utilized for hands-on learning processes on a variety of topics relevant to international curricula. The topics range from learning about the biology of insects and their position in the ecosystem, to food waste and food systems, emissions and climate change down to nitrogen cycles and plant growth. Focus was on the closed loop principle that insects can support. For example, when feeding them kitchen wastes from home kitchens or cafeterias, then using the droppings as fertilizer for growing plants that are later harvested as edible greens. This process has revealed insights that are relevant for stakeholders across the insect sector, including “pick up lines”, “battle lines”, “learning lines” and a process structure to use to communicate effectively about insects, create interesting talking points and in consequence, to reach a larger audience.
Market opportunities for insects in dog food
* Sonja Floto-Stammen, Fontys International Business School, Netherlands
Natalia Naranjo Guevara, Fontys International Business School
Julia Janke, Fontys International Business School
In the present study, possibilities for the use of insects in the dog food market were identified in order to answer the question whether animal feed manufacturers should take into account the increasing trend of insect-based animal feed and bring a corresponding product onto the market. Our research is an orientation tool that companies can use to decide whether insect food fits their marketing strategy or whether they may have another product in their portfolio that meets the same requirements as insect-based animal feed.