|Thursday, June 03|
Water Sensitive Cities Index: Guiding policy and action to drive water sensitive city transitions
* Gemma Dunn, GHD, Canada
Briony Rogers, Canada
Wikke Novalia, Canada
Katie Hammer, Canada
Christian Urich, Canada
Lindsey Brown, Canada
Tony Wong, Canada
Rebekah Brown, Canada
Fjalar de Haan, Canada
Chris Chesterfield, Canada
"Cities around the world and across Canada are wrestling with the practical challenges of shifting to comprehensive, integrated, and adaptive water services that reflect a broad range of economic, social and ecological benefits and cultural values of water. Guiding and motivating action for change is difficult, as existing governance structures and processes tend to anchor and reinforce conventional practices. Decision-makers need targeted and tailored insights to guide collective local efforts in a water sensitive direction. The Water Sensitive Cities Index is a tool that can enable decision-makers to lead change. The Index has been designed to measure progress towards achieving water sensitive city goals and assist decision-makers in prioritizing actions for water-related practices to improve water system planning and management. The Index comprises 7 goals and 34 indicators that span the full range of attributes that define water sensitivity including governance, community capital, equity, productivity, ecology, urban design and adaptive infrastructure. The purpose of the Index is to support strategic planning and decision-making, as well as foster stakeholder relationships, collaboration and inter-city learning. The Index is delivered through a collaborative workshop led by an accredited provider. The facilitated workshop process is particularly important in fostering a shared understanding of what water sensitive principles mean in practice, as well as developing consensus on the community’s current performance. The tool is supported by a web platform to enable visualizations of benchmarking results for a range of audiences, including policy makers and service providers. Developed between 2014-2017 the Index draws on extensive multidisciplinary research conducted by the Australian CRC for Water Sensitive Cities. It has undergone over two years of testing and validation with industry partners to ensure a useful product that is functional, reliable and scientifically robust. Experience in assessing the water sensitive performance of more than 50 cities around the world shows the WSC Index results can be used in a variety of ways to inform the development of management actions and strategies in response to key priorities."
ECED-Sahel: A case of integrated water resources planning and use for drinking water and agriculture in the crisis-affected Sahel region of Burkina Faso
* Maxim Fortin, Aquasphera / Cowater International, Canada
Laure Tankpinou, Canada
Mark Redwood, Canada
"In the Sahel region of Burkina Faso, only 56% of the population have access to clean water. Limited water is available for economic activities such as pastoralism and small-holder agriculture, fueling poverty and insecurity. Armed conflict and climate stress are further reducing the viability of dryland livelihoods and increasing the number of displaced people into other regions. The objective of the ECED-Sahel project was to integrate water resources management (and resilience) in a cross-cutting way: through water treatment and provision, agricultural livelihoods, and WASH using a social arts approach. The project tackled key needs for over 75,000 people during a five-year period of rapid decline in the security situation of the country (2015-2020). Specific results include the following: - Design, procurement and construction in close collaboration with the National Water and Sewerage Authority (ONEA) of a 230 m3/h treatment plant to supply drinking water to more than 60,000 people in the region. - Construction of more than 1,700 household latrines and 35 community latrine blocks promoting the elimination of open defecation for more than 12,000 people. - Adoption of good hygiene practices such as handwashing by more than 16,000 people using a combination of the Community Led Total Sanitation and Social Art for Behaviours Change approaches. - Capacity building and institutionalization of community-based management systems to improve access to drinking water, based on the principles of inclusive governance with 26 water user associations. - Economic empowerment of women’s associations and farmer’s cooperatives, comprising over 830 people, that saw a 67% increase in their income. With a total budget of 17.4 million $CA, the project was a collaboration between Cowater International, Global Affairs Canada, the Canadian mining company IAMGOLD, the One Drop Foundation / Cirque du Soleil, the government of Burkina Faso and local authorities. Cowater was responsible for the overall management and delivery of the project in Burkina Faso. In particular, its teams coordinated, supervised and oversaw the procurement and implementation of engineering services (prefeasibility, feasibility and detailed design, construction supervision) as well as the construction of the water infrastructure in a complex multi-stakeholder environment. In the scoping phase, a detailed hydrological study was conducted to confirm water availability at the source, an existing dam with an estimated storage capacity of 26,000,000 m3. Innovative solutions were identified to increase the storage capacity of the dam and the production capacity of the treatment plant in a modular way to serve more communities. In parallel, preliminary hydrological and hydraulic modeling in 2D was also completed to assess potential flood risks in a dam break scenario. Throughout the project, the principles of government engagement with local and national authorities, gradual handover of responsibilities and an adaptive risk management framework were key for longer term sustainability. Risks associated with the project were many, including significant water scarcity in the Sahelian climate, a deteriorating security situation during implementation, rise of armed conflicts and significant increases in internally displaced populations meaning a rapidly evolving and challenging context for large-scale construction."
Integrated Hydropower Modelling in Canada with Subnational Detail
* Evan Arbuckle, University of Alberta, Canada
Evan G.R. Davies, Canada
Diego V. Chiappori, Canada
"Canadian hydropower resource estimates are often geographically incomplete and lack detailed cost consideration. Some studies provide high-level hydropower resource estimates on a provincial basis, but ignore marginal costs. Others provide cost details to compare investment alternatives, but only for isolated regions. Therefore, we have produced hydropower resource estimates that can provide spatially refined data for energy system planning, integrated assessment model (IAM) simulations, long-term water allocation planning, and analyses of competition for water resources, many of which currently lack hydropower resource definition because of scarce hydrological data to inform estimates. We then apply our resource estimates to the Global Change Analysis Model (GCAM), a prominent IAM, to gain insight into hydropower planning in Canada. Water modelling is under continuous development in GCAM, in recognition that energy, land, and agricultural systems are inextricably linked to the water sector. GCAM’s water sector includes modelling for water withdrawal, consumption and return flows. In prior work, we have compared scenarios for hydropower cost overrun risk assessment on a national basis in GCAM, which provided insights regarding hydropower’s role in the energy system that can help energy system planners, policymakers, and proponents analyze risks holistically. Hydropower cost overrun scenarios induced elevated electricity prices, causing higher end-use sector fossil fuel demand and net CO2 emissions, while limiting further electrification. However, that work treated Canada as a single, combined region, which does not reflect the provincial governance of electricity and water resources. Further, Canada’s hydropower resources are heterogeneously distributed, and many areas are very expensive to develop because of remoteness and lengthy transmission distances. Thus, including hydropower detail at a finer spatial resolution provides a framework to better understand the trade-offs of energy production alternatives in the context of the water sector. Water resources planning in Canada is well-advised to analyze potential future hydropower development paths, as hydropower comprises a major source of Canada’s energy, but growth projections vary widely. We apply detailed hydropower resource estimates to GCAM as part of a larger project to improve model representation of Canadian systems. In this work, we refine resource estimates to 35 subnational regions within Canada, defined along provincial and territorial borders and major watershed boundaries based on a previously published, globally consistent dataset that assigns hydropower resource estimates with cost consideration. Work remains to fully integrate hydropower with water markets in the model. To calibrate the model for historical generation, we have aggregated historical capacity data for all provinces and territories and estimated capacity factors at the basin level in regions with significant generation. Applying this data to GCAM, we assess the role and impacts of hydropower in the Canadian energy and economic systems under a variety of future scenarios. Using GCAM allows hydropower generation development to be considered in the context of broader energy and water system feedbacks so that alternative energy developments can be compared robustly in a way that leads to practical insights for planning. In our presentation, we will compare several GCAM scenarios to assess whether possible policy directions lead to intended outcomes. "
An SPEI based approach for assessing basin moisture condition in the Souris River Basin of Prairie Pothole Region
* Ameer Muhammad, Water Security Agency, Canada
Curtis Hallborg, Canada
Soil moisture content plays a vital role in predicting spring runoff within the Prairie Pothole Region. In this study, we developed an algorithm based on the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) that provides an assessment of basin moisture conditions that can be used to support decision-making capacity regarding water resources and reservoir operations planning. The work is a component of the Souris River Plan of Study, an International Joint Commission project between Canada and the US. The algorithm has been tested on the Souris River Basin at multiple Spatio-temporal scale that host several major reservoirs. Preliminary results suggest that the SPEI at 9-month scale correlate well with spring runoff and a SPEI threshold of -1.0 or lower at freeze-up in the fall would result in a minimal risk of high flows in the following spring.